In this summer home stretch, everybody in government seems to be either going on vacation or just returning. Here are items for pondering at the beach or mountains or for reviewing if you are just getting back in harness:

Pay Raise - White collar federal civilians and military personnel are due one as of Oct. 1. The civilian employees' increase will be effective with the first pay period beginning on or after Oct. 1.

President Carter has not settled or has not made public the amount of the increase. The increase probably will be an across the board 7.05 per cent, as recommended by Carter's pay agents.

Word on the exact amount of the raise is due soon. If Carter decides to go with something other than the 7.05 per cent - a "catch-up-with-industry raise" - Congress would have to approve it. The 7.05 per cent comparability figure would cost $3.5 billion.

Pensions - Retired federal and military personnel will receive a 4.3 per cent cost-of-living raise effective Sept. 1 and appearing in checks received in early October.

Military retirees working in government as civilians will be eligible for both the civilian pay raise and the retiree cost-of-living increase.

Double Dippers - The House Investigations subcommittee will begin final work on legislation that could trim pensions for military retirees who take government jobs as civilians in the future.

The odds are that Congress will not tamper with the pay and pensions of the 141,000 retired military people now serving in government. Nor is it expected to put a salary pension curb on retired enlisted personnel. But some retired generals and admirals now earning as much as $80,000 in pay-pension from the government may have to take a pension reduction or leave the government.

Hatch Act - Insiders doubt that the Senate will have time this year to approve the House passed bill giving full partisan political participation rights to government workers. They are now limited to passive, noncandidate roles by the Hatch Act.

Union leaders pushing for Hatch Act changes are confident that the Senate will clear the bill in January or February and that Carter will sign it.

Grade Protection - Both Congress and the White House want to give some legal protection to federal workers facing demotions because of past classification errors or reorganization. That probably will not happen this year, either, if Congress sticks to its October adjournment plans. In the meantime, the Civil Service Commission is being generous about giving agencies authority to defer demotions due because of unavoidable classification errors.

Here are some suggestions for reading and reference materials that might be helpful to those looking for work with Uncle Sam or trying to do business with the government:

The new U.S. Government Manual ($6.50) is out and certainly is worthwhile for anyone trying to get a handle on the government. The 882-page official guidebook not only gives addresses of federal agencies and names of key personnel but also tells what each agency is supposed to do. The manual is available from the Government Printing Office (Stock number 022-003-00924-8) by mail, or at most GPO bookstores.

The Federal Executive Telephone Directory is printed by Carroll Publishing Company and lists in alphabetical order most key government personnel here. Subscribers pay $96 a year. Write 1058 Thomas Jefferson St. NW 20007.

Job hunters can look for two excellent, current guides to job hunters can look for two excellent, current guides to job openings in various government agencies. Many government agencies use these services to see what the hiring picture is for them and other agencies. Addresses are:

Federal Research Service, Box 1059. Vienna, Va. 22180, phone 281-5404. Price is $78 for 26 issues.

Federal Job Letter, Box 2126, Reston. Va. 22090, phone 471-1417. Price is $60 for 26 issues.

A new privately produced directory. Braddock's. of federal-state-local government officials and offices. This includes key media people and their telephone numbers and will be available in a few weeks in GSA self-service stores and in private bookstores. For information, 296-3630.