Career postal employe William F. Bolger was named Postmaster General yesterday, the first Postal Service professional to get the job in 30 years.

Bolger, 54, had been deputy postmaster general since September, 1975 under Benjamin F. Bailar, who resigned two weeks ago.

The new postmaster general promptly reaffirmed his opposition to legislation pending in the House which would increase postal subsidies and restore congressional and presidential control of the now independent postal service.

"We can do the job under the current legislation," Bolger said, referring to the 1971 law that created the Postal Service and removed political control over postal operation and the appointment of postmasters.

"Increased subsidies are not the only answer," said Bolger. He described his goals as "keeping service levels as high as possible and keeping prices as low as possible."

Bolger was named appointed postmaster general by the nine-member board of governors of the Postal Service, upon which he had served while deputy.

His appointment does not require Senate confirmation, although the job carries the same $66,000-a-year salary that Cabinet members receive.

M. A. Wright, chairman of the board of governors, announced the appointment after a three-hour, closed-door session.

Praising bolger as "a strong and determined person . . . who is thoroughly knowledgeable in postal matters," Wright said the governors had accepted "with regret" the resignation of Bailar.

Bailar, who ran the postal service for three years and frequently tangled with politicians and political unions over his efforts to cut costs, is to appear today before the Senate Government Affairs Subcommittee.

The new postmaster general, an Alexandria resident, first worked as a financial clerk for the post office in 1941 while attending George Washington University.

After service in World War II, he moved up through the ranks of the Post Office Department, working in district offices in Maine and New Hampshire, and later in top management jobs in the New England region.

Bolger was director of the Boston region when the Postal Service was created in 1971, and was Regional Postmaster General for the Northeast before he became deputy postmaster general in 1975.

The only previous career postal worker to become postmaster general was Jesse M. donaldson, who was named to the job by President Truman in 1947.