President Carter's trade representative, Robert S. Strauss, said yesterday in Peking that he had so far failed to reach agreement with the Peoples Republic of China to limit its textile exports to the United States.

But officials here reported that negotiations were still in process late last night - early Thursday Peking time - and that a deal still might be reached before Strauss files to Tokyo on Friday.

Meanwhile, there were these related events:

China cancelled a "protocol agreement" under which it was to borrow $30 million from the Chase Manhattan Bank for the design phases of a $200 million to $300 million U.S. trade center in Peking. But the PRC reaffirmed its intention to go along with the project, bank officials in New York said. The PRC decided to finance the design phase out of its own cash.

The Foreign Claims Settlement Commission announced it would receive claims against the PRC by U.S. nationals that may have arisen between Nov. 6, 1966, and May 11, 1979. Any such claims that are validated would be paid out of the $80.5 million lump sum that China agreed to pay to settle all claims arising between Oct. 1, 1949, and May 11 - the date the settlement was nnounced. Until now, the FCSC had validated claims running only to Nov. 6, 1966.

The importance of reaching a textile agreement is this: the United States has assured Congress - which is pressured by the U.S. textile lobby - that it will not forward the recently initialed U.S. China trade agreement until China agrees to limit textile exports by a quota system.

China, on the other hand, has strenuously objected to quotas suggested by the United States.