Dart Drug Corp. reported a 33 percent jump in first-quarter earnings to $223,000 (12 cents a share) from $165,000 (9 cents) in the 1977 first quarter and said sales increased to $49.9 million from $46.5 million.

Dart President Herbert H. Haft attributed the gain to "more efficient operation" during the quarter ended April 30, traditionally the poorest for drug chains.

Survival Technology Inc. of Bethesda reported its third quarter income fell more than 40 percent because of lower sales to the government of the company's chemical warfare antidote injectors.

Survival Technology Inc., of 000 (14 cents per share) for the quarter ended April 30, compared with $615,000 (25 cents) in the same period a year ago. Sales declined to $2.9 million from $3.6 million.

Tax credits resulting from previous losses contributed a substantial portion of Survival Technology's earnings in each period - $153,000 (6 cents) this year and $316,000 (13 cents) a year ago.

For the first nine months of its fiscal year, Survival Technology reported earnings of $1,032,000 (42 cents) on revenues of $7.9 million, compared with $639,000 (26 cents) on revenues of $7.3 million a year ago.

Although sales of the automatic chemical warfare antidote injectors fell from last year's record levels, the company's backlog of orders has increased from $3 million a year to $7 million, said Dr. Stanley J. Sarnoff, chairman, and Brian Dovey, president. Increased commercial sales have more than offset the decline in defense business in the last nine months, they said.Survival Technology also makes emergency gear for heart attack victims.

TransTechnology Corp. reported its net earnings increased to $895,000 (50 cents) from $605,000 (34 cents) for the year ended March 31. Revenues were dowm slightly to $28.8 million from $29.8 million.

TransTechnology's profits were depressed by $417,000 as a result of writing off losses of an Italian subsidiary that was abandoned by the defense and textile machinery maker.

Doughtie's Foods Inc. of Portsmouth reported profits fell by 50 percent despite a 25 percent increase in volume for the three months ended March 31.

Doughtie's earned $62,800 (9 cents) on sales of $8.5 million for the quarter, compared with $126,000 (18 cents) on sales of $6.7 million a year ago.