DESCRIPTION: A Bethesda-based firm engaged in five principal businesses: aerospace and defense systems primarily for the U.S. government; aluminum production; portland and masonry cement manufacturing; dyestuff and chemicals; and an aggregate company that quarries crushed stone, sand and gravel (NYSE,M,P,Phla.). PROFITS PER SHARE: $7.10. DIVIDENDS: $49.6 million ($1.98 a share, since raised to $2.12 annually). FOUNDED: 1909. TOP EXCUTIVES: J. Donald Rauth, chairman and chief executive; Thomas G. Pownall, president and chief operating officer.

Martin Marietta had a record year in 1979 with continued expansion on all fronts. Martin Marietta Alumnium scored the biggest gains of all five companies with sales of $550 million and earnings of $95 million. By 1983 the company's metal producing capacity will increase by 70 percent to about $365,000 tons a year. The board of directors has approved a record $406 million capital expansion progam for 1980 to be concentrated on improved productivity and profitability. About $50 million will go toward expanding the aerospace business by including new weapons systems to offset its "vulnerability to adverse effects of program cancellations or stretch-outs." The company has predicted that the aerospace division will do $1 billion in sales this year.