President Carter scolded the nation's hotel-motel industry yesterday for failing to cooperate with his anti-inflation program, charging the industry with raising prices excessively in the face of high volume and profits.

A few hours later, Carter's Council on Wage and Price Stability cited two major divisions of the Hilton Hotels Corporation and the Hyatt Hotels chain for allegedly violating the administration's voluntary price guidelines.

The meeting between the president and the hotel executives was the fifth such "jawboning" session Carter has held with leaders of key domestic industries in the past several months.

Carter also has summoned representatives of the food, drug, metals, chemicals and agricultural equipment industries to White House sessions to discuss their performance in restraining price increases.

The president told the executives yesterday the price boosts by thei industry had "not been pleasing to me nor in my judgement helpful to our country. We have had a lot of trouble with many members of the . . . industry," he said.

Shortly after the meeting, the wage-price council published statistics showing hotel-motel prices soared at an average annual rate of 23.3 percent in the first three months of this year, following a 17.6 percent pace in late 1979.

The council said at the same time occupancy rates last year reached an extraordinary 71.5 percent -- the highest in two decades -- while profits rose by between 2 percent and 37 percent this year, following increases of 2 percent to 51 percent in 1979.

Industry officials made no promises in response to Carter's remarks. Joseph W. McCarthy, president of Quality Inn Inc., said "no one was asked to volunteer, and no one volunteered." He said each firm would act as it saw fit.

Carter's previous jawboning efforts have produced few visible results beyond calling public attention to industreis in which prices have risen sharply. The supermarket and drug-store industries have mounted temporary price freezes.

Earlier this month, the Holiday Inn motel chain agreed to roll back some price increases under pressure from the wage-price council. Carter said yesterday, however, that 17 other major chains were in an "uncertain status."

In Beverly Hills, Calif., the Hilton Hotels Corporation issued a statement saying it has "diligently endeavored to comply with" the guidelines program but gave no sigh of rolling back recent price hikes to meet council demands.

The announcement involving Hyatt Hotels technically would leave that firm vulnerable to loss of any federal contracts in excess of $5 million if the government chooses to impose sanctions.

The White House never has used its sanction powers, however, despite Carter's pledge to employ them where necessary. Yesterday's session was attended by Alfred E. Kahn, Carter's chief anti-inflation adviser.