Unemployment rates rose visibly -- by more than 1 percentage point -- in June in most of the 50 states and the District of Columbia the Labor Department reported yesterday, but the impact varied widely among jurisdictions.

While the jobless rate for the District jumped to 7 percent over the month, from 6.2 percent in May, unemployment in Indiana leaped to 11.9 percent of the work force, while that for New York fell to 7.1 percent.

Except for the District and Hawaii,virtually all states had higher unemployment rates in June than they did the same month a year ago, the department reported.

In the District, sharp increases in government, service-industry and finance jobs more than offset employmentdeclines in construction and other industries. The jobless rate here in June 1979 was 8.2 percent.

Analysts said Hawaii's economy has been bolstered by a sharp jump in tourists business.

For the Washington metroplitan area,which includes the Maryland and Virginia suburbs, the jobless rate for June was 4.6 percent, compared with 3.9 percent in May and 4.8 percent in June of 1979.

Besides New York, the other state to avert a rise in joblessness in June was New Jersey, whose unemployment rate remained at 8.6 percent, the same as in May. The May jobless rate New York was 7.4 percent.

Although the jobless rates for individual states generally rose in June, the national unemployment rate actually edged down over the month, dipping to 7.7 percent from 7.8 percent the previous month.

However, the national unemployment rate returned to 7.8 percent in July. The national and state rates are calculated differently, with the state rates lagging by a month.

Changes of 0.1 percentage point in the national rate are considered too small to be statistically significant. As a result, the department has described the national rate as essentially unchanged between May and July.