Americans paid an average $607 per person in state taxes last year -- a 156 percent increase over 1970, when individuals paid an average $237 in state taxes.

According to figures just released by the Tax Foundation Inc., a nonprofit, nonpartisan research and public-education organization, state government taxes claimed $71 for every $1,000 in personal income in 1980, up from $65 in 1970.

Maryland was the 12th-highest state tax collector on a per-person basis, with taxes averaging $655 in 1980, up 137 percent from $276 in 1970, when Maryland ranked 36th.

Virginia state taxes per person were $513 in 1980, up 150 percent from 10 years earlier, when the commonwealth collected an average $206 per person. In 1970, Virginia was the 25th largest state tax collector. In 1980, it ranked 38th.

Alaska had the highest state tax collections in 1980, totaling $3,954 for each state resident. Hawaii was the second highest, with a per capita tax burden of $1,035. Delaware, with a burden of $867 per person, was third. New Hampshire, collecting $290 per state resident, imposed the least burden.

In total, state taxes were $137.1 billion in 1980, compared to $48 billion in 1970, a 186 percent increase.

General and selective sales taxes were the largest source of state tax revenue, accounting for 49 percent of the taxes collected. However, this was a decrease from 1970, when sales taxes accounted for 56.8 percent of the money collected.

State income taxes accounted for 36.8 percent of the revenue in 1980, with 27.1 percent from individuals and 9.7 from corporations.