The Reagan administration wants to phase out the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) program and replace it with a new training project heavily dependent on help from private business, according to a Labor Department draft proposal.

The proposal, obtained by The Washington Post from sources outside the department, said CETA revision plans under consideration by the administration would:

* Eliminate or substantially reduce dependence on government income-maintenance programs for job-training participants.

* Use "performance-based" tests to determine the amount of federal aid awarded to job-training programs. The tests would put "heavy emphasis on placements in the private sector," according to one source familiar with the proposals.

* Eliminate stipend payments to job-training participants.

* Prohibit the payment of recruiting fees to agencies or persons bringing job-training candidates into the programs.

The 1973 law establishing CETA expires next Sept. 30.

The Labor Department initially requested $3 billion in 1983 money for the proposed new program, according to the draft proposal. The Office of Management and Budget tried to reduce that amount to $1.6 billion. But the White House last week approved funding at $2.4 billion after Labor Secretary Raymond J. Donovan protested the OMB offer.

Still, the amount tentatively approved is considerably below the $7.6 billion spent on all CETA programs in fiscal 1981, and the nearly $4.6 billion in projected CETA spending for fiscal 1982. The administration eliminated $3.7 billion in CETA money last fiscal year when it wiped out all of the program's 340,000 public service jobs.

The draft document, entitled "A Proposal for Reform of the Employment Training System," said that any revision of the CETA program "must begin with a reevaluation of the goals of the system and the role of the federal government in the provision of services."

The proposal said the CETA program tried to do too much, often poorly, in the past. The new program "must be more narrowly focused," the draft proposal said.

"The employment and training system should not and cannot be expected to significantly raise the aggregate level of labor productivity, nor significantly lower the aggregate rate of unemployment. The goals must be more narrowly focused. They must also be attainable," the draft proposal said.

Albert Angrisani, assistant labor secretary for employment and training, last night confirmed the authenticity of the draft proposal. But he said it was only one of many proposals under consideration by the administration.

"There is not now any official position formed. There are a number of proposals in circulation," Angrisani said. However, he added that the administration "has been saying for the last several months" that it wants to establish a job training program that would involve more direct participation by business and industry. Such a program would be "a basic improvement" over what currently exists, but "it would not be a revolutionary thing," Angrisani said.