The Reagan administration tax proposals for fiscal 1983 and 1984 will take back more than half the cut in corporate income taxes approved in the Economic Recovery Act as an incentive to business investment.

To spur investment, the administration last year won approval of legislation reducing corporate income taxes by $13.6 billion in fiscal year 1983, primarily by giving business a sharply accelerated depreciation schedule.

But now, faced with mounting deficits, the administration has proposed tax hikes that would increase corporate income taxes in 1983 by $9.1 billion.

Similarly, in 1984, the Reagan proposals would function to increase corporate income taxes by a total of $16.1 billion, far more than half the $21.6 billion business income tax cut enacted in the 1981 legislation.

These are part of a package of tax hikes, Internal Revenue Service regulation changes and user fees designed to raise totals of $12.8 billion in 1983, $19.3 billion in 1984 and $22.5 in 1985.

Even before their introduction, however, nearly every part of this package is in serious trouble in Congress. While Senate Republicans and House Democrats may be willing to raise revenues even more than the administration has suggested, key leaders on both sides of the aisle have indicated little willingness to support many of the specifics outlined by President Reagan.

The major elements of the program are:

* An end to what are known as the "completed contract" regulations, under which major builders and weapons contractors are able to postpone income tax payments until a contract is received. The administration would require that taxes be paid either on the basis of the percentage of the contract completed or on the basis of progress payments.

It may be that this change, which would produce $8.3 billion over two years, could be achieved through regulation, and not require legislation. It is sure to anger the defense industry and major contractors.

* Elimination of the corporate "add on" minimum tax, replacing it with an alternative corporate tax applying to businesses that use sections of the tax code to reduce liabilities to little or nothing. The administration proposal, which some members of Congress would like to expand, would raise $6.9 billion over two years.

* Three smaller tax proposals--restrictions on industrial revenue bonds, elimination of a special break available to the life insurance industry and elimination of a corporate amortization rate on interest and taxes for commercial construction--would raise a total of $5.6 billion through 1984.

* A 5 percent withholding rate on interest and dividends, a 5,000-person increase in the enforcement staff of the IRS and acceleration of corporate income tax payments.