Construction has started on a 400,000-square-foot office and industrial project in Reston. The first-phase development of Sunrise Technology Park includes two single-story buildings totaling 125,000 square feet now under construction on Sunrise Valley Drive, adjacent to the headquarters of the U.S. Geological Survey.

The 30-acre complex fills "a hole in the Fairfax County market for research and development facilities," said Peter Scamardo, president of Centennial Development Corp. The firm also is developing Tandem Computer's 235,000-square-foot regional headquarters in Reston.

The park was designed by Lockman Associates, a Washington architectual firm. Space arrangements will accommodate tenants requiring from 2,400 to 125,000 square feet. Financing for the $8 million project was arranged by the Abacus Group.

Industrial and commercial space in Reston will increase by more than 700,000 square feet during 1982, according to officials of the Reston Land Corp. About half of the space has been committed to corporate users, said Charles Carter, the firm's commercial land sales manager. More than 400,000 square feet will be utilized by research and development firms.

Other developments in real estate in the Washington area:

* A partnership headed by Robert H. Moran and Barry H. Stern has purchased 60 M St. NE and leased 30 M St. NE. The group plans to renovate and convert the combined property into 110,000 square feet of office space.

* Johnson and Higgins, a New York-based financial brokerage firm, has leased over 5,000 square feet at 2021 K St. NW.

* Stanwood Electronics, Inc., a distributor of telephone products, has leased 12,000 square feet at 9550 Berger Rd. in Columbia.

* Floor Concepts, Inc., a commercial flooring supplier, has leased 6,000 square feet at 11407 Frederick Ave. in Beltsville.

* Applied Research Corp., a scientific development firm, has leased 4,450 square feet at 8201 Corporate Dr. in Landover. The firm will move its offices from smaller quarters at 8401 Corporate Dr.

* Eight firms have leased space at Jumpers Junction shopping center at 8106-8124 Ritchie Hwy. in Pasadena, Md.: Scott's Home and Garden Center has leased 38,500 square feet; Estey Pool Co. has leased 1,000 square feet; Continental Carpet Co., Inc., has leased 1,000 square feet; Drapery Mart, Inc., has leased 1,000 square feet, Bart's Sports World has leased 2,100 square feet; Bed Quarters has leased 5,200 square feet; Franklin Uniform Co. has leased 2,100 square feet; and Radio Shack Home Computer Center has leased 4,000 square feet.

* Three firms have leased space at 7500 Greenway Center Dr. in Greenbelt: Lockheed Corp. has leased 11,454 square feet, bringing its total space in the building to about 23,000 square feet; the National Association of Manufacturers has leased 2,185 square feet; Maryland National Bank has leased 849 square feet.

* Control Data Corp., a computer and financial service firm, has leased 14,000 square feet at 11900 Parklawn Dr. in Rockville.