In Inc. magazine's recent listing of the 500 fastest-growing companies in the United States, 27 were based in the Washingtonarea. The Washington Post profiled 15 of those companies last week. Companies not included last week or in other recent articles are listed below.

Inc. magazine ranked the firms not by size but by growth. Each company had to satisfy these requirements:

* Be independent and privately held; at least five years old, and show an increase in sales from 1977 to 1981.

* 1977 sales had to be at least $100,000 but less than $25 million; 1981 sales had to exceed 1980 sales. Firms that showed growth in the five-year period but registered a decrease in 1981 sales were not included.

Research, Analysis & Management, Rockville, "a naval support services firm" grew 647 percent with 1981 sales of $3.6 million. No. 209 on the Inc. list.

General Physics, Columbia, which provides "training services for nuclear utilities," grew 393 percent. 1981 sales were $23.6 million. No. 356.

Temporaries Inc., a personnel placement firm in the District, grew 346 percent. 1981 sales were $34.1 million. No. 390.

Advanced Marine Enterprises, Arlington, engaged in naval architecture, grew 336 percent. 1981 sales were $5.3 million. No. 398.

Planning Systems, McLean, which does naval warfare systems research, grew 330 percent. 1981 sales were $5 million. No. 403.

Sage Systems, Bethesda, which manufactures and sells computer software, grew 319 percent. 1981 sales were $2.8 million. No. 409.

Hekimian Laboratories, Gaithersburg, telecommunications systems manufacturers, grew 305 percent. 1981 sales were $11.9 million. No. 420.

Kastle Systems, Arlington, a "central station security and energy management systems" firm, grew 274 percent. 1981 sales were $3.3 million. No. 450.

Creative Management Systems, Vienna, a telecommunications software company, grew 262 percent. 1981 sales were $493,000. No. 465.

CTEC, a computer company in McLean, also grew 262 percent. 1981 sales were $6.7 million. No. 466.