The Environmental Protection Agency yesterday ordered General Motors Corp. to recall 527,000 1978-model cars that the agency says are causing excessive air pollution.

The cars include the Chevrolet Malibu, Monte Carlo and Monza; the Pontiac LeMans, Grand Am and Sunbird; the Buick Regal and Century, and the Oldsmobile Starfire.

EPA says the cars' engines have nitrogen oxide emissions of 2.5 grams per mile. The federal limit is 2 grams per mile.

A recall of 16,000 electric motors that are miswired and may under certain conditions overheat and cause fires is being launched by Westinghouse Electric Corp. and Broan Manufacturing Co., the Consumer Product Safety Commission announced yesterday.

The motors were supplied by Westinghouse for Broan Model 346 and Nautilus Model N346 attic ventilators. The units were manufactured and sold after April 1978.

Motors subject to recall have a Westinghouse sticker, model number E322P159. Only motors with the model number E322P159 and with SER*78 or SER*79 (the * represents any letter of the alphabet) date codes stamped on the bottom are affected.

Owners should contact Westinghouse at 1-800-821-7700 extension 133. A new motor will be free of charge. Consumers also can call the CPSC on 800-638-CPSC.