Treasury Secretary Nicholas F. Brady calls on the House appropriations committee Wednesday to make a personal pitch for the president's fiscal year 1992 budget proposal, even as Congress formulates a counter- proposal. Negotiations will take on a different flavor this year because last year's budget accord set in stone overall spending levels. As a result, the fight this year will be over who gets that money, not how much money there will be. That puts the appropriations committee at the center of the budget process, in contrast to last year, when the budget committees were supreme. SUNDAY: The AFL-CIO opens its annual executive council meeting at a hotel in Bal Harbour, Fla. It will run through Friday. MONDAY: U.S. banks and financial markets are closed to mark Presidents' Day. In foreign markets, it will be business as usual. WEDNESDAY: Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan appears before the Senate Banking Committee to deliver his twice-a-year report on monetary policy. Economists and investors will be watching closely for clues to his plans for responding to the recession and troubles in the banking system. Also today, the Commerce Department releases January housing starts figures, a key indicator in the evolution of the recession, and the Labor Department will put out the January consumer prices figures. THURSDAY: An estimated 4,000 artists, art historians and museum officials gather at the Sheraton-Washington Hotel and Omni Shoreham Hotel for the College Art Association's annual convocation. Top on their minds during the three-day session: censorship, new technologies such as video, and the environmental impact of art materials. TOMORROW in Washington Business: The loss Garfinckel's and Fantle's and difficulties at other major stores has retailers backing gingerly into the future.