The Soviet Union yesterday hailed the victory of world chess champion Anatoly Karpov over challenger Victor Korchnoi as a triumph of communism over a dangerous and peridious adversary.

Tass, the official Soviet press agency, declared that Karpov achieved "the most responsible match ever played in beating Korchnoi, who defected from the U.S.S.R. in 1976.Karpov won the pivoted game in the 52-game match yesterday when Korchnoi resigned after the 41st move, facing seeming certain defeat. The match, at Baguio City. The Philippines, took three months to play, the longest in the history of world chess championships.

The official Soviet version of the final game said Karpov won in part because of "his awareness of his duty to millions of people who were eagerly expecting his victory."

The agency quoted an unidentified Philippine newspaper as saying that the Karpov victory "is his own way [of] defending the social system he represents and which his rival, who fled from the country, is trying to discredit." Tass declared: "We shall add that the adversary was very experienced, dangerous, and perfidious."

It accused Korchnoi, 47, of consorting with convicted criminals (two of his supporters recently were found guilty of attempted murder by a Phillippine court) and said he was "unscrupulous about means, resorting to threats, accusations and personal insults."

Karpov, 27, who became world champion in 1975 after defeating Korchnoi in a play-off and taking the title when then-world champion. Bobby Fischer of the United States refused to play in a rules dispute sent a telegram of thanks yesterday to Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.

Here in Moscow, where the match, was followed with keen interest by Soviet chess enthusiasts, the consensur was that Korchnoi may never recover from the 6-5 defeat. Igor Lyapunov an administrator of the central chess-club of the U.S.S.R. asserted, "I think it will be a very heavy blow to Korchnoi. He is a man without a country a man without respect."

Lyapunov added, "In the eyes of the chess world, both as a man and a chess player, I think he has lost much."

Speaking with Western correspondents.Lyapunov said he and his colleagues anticipate a long reign for Karpov. "We simply don't see any strong challengers . . . The victory is as it should be . . ."