Among the 16 basic rules for Esperanto:
All nouns end in o singular and oj plural; adjectives end in a and aj ; all adverbs end in e, and verbs end in a's for the present tense, i's for the past tense, o's for the future tense and the infinitive ends in i.
Every word is pronounced as it is spelled and the accent is always on the next-to-last syllable.
In Esperanto, you can take the same basic root and put various endings on it. The average root will create 10 or more words. The biggest Esperanto dictionary has 16,000 roots out of which you can make 160,000 words.
The Esperanto alphabet contains 28 letters. Each letter has only 1 sound. There are no silent letters and the letters q, w, x, y, z, are not in the alphabet. There are six new letters: c, g, h, j, s, u.
Some words and phrases in Esperanto:
1. Saluton -- Hello.
2. Dankon -- Thank you.
3. Nedankinde -- You're welcome.
4. Bonan tagon -- Good afternoon.
5. Bonan nokton -- Good night.
6. Mi tre gojas renkonti vin -- I am very glad to know you.
7. Tio estis bonega mango -- That was a delightful meal.
8. Cu vi bone voyagis? -- Did you have a good trip?
9. Si sidigas al la piano kaj kantas -- She sits at the piano and sings.
10. Vi venas akurate -- Right on time.