The cost of sex bias in classrooms (excerpted from the Sex Equity Handbook for Teachers by Myra and David Sadker):
* Girls start out ahead of boys in speaking, reading and counting and are equal to boys in math and in science. As they progress through school, their achievement test scores show significant decline.
* Boys' achievement test scores continue to rise. However, they receive lower grades and are more likely to be identified as exhibiting learning disabilities and reading problems.
* Girls, in spite of test scores, frequently receive better grades, which may be one of the rewards they receive for being more quiet and docile in the classroom.
* Boys suffer from role conflict when society socializes them into an active, independent and aggressive role, but school rituals stress quiet behavior.
* Girls are more likely than boys to exhibit learned helplessness and to feel failure is insurmountable. As they try to avoid failure situations, they may also stop trying.
* Boys are taught stereotyped behaviors earlier and more harshly than girls. Boys who most conform to these stereotypes rate highest on anxiety tests.
* Girls show a decline in career commitment by high school, which is related to their feeling that boys disapprove of girls using their intelligence.
* Boys often build career expectations higher than their abilities, resulting in later compromise, disappointment and frustration.