The nation's four leading classical ballet companies--the New York City Ballet, American Ballet Theatre, the Joffrey Ballet and the Dance Theatre of Harlem--are major attractions on the Kennedy Center's ballet subscription series for 1982-83, details of which were announced yesterday by the Kennedy Center.

Breaking with a longtime precedent, the series will contain no foreign troupes this year. Instead, Ballet West of Salt Lake City, directed by Bruce Marks, former principal dancer of ABT and the Royal Danish Ballet, will make its Washington debut as part of the Opera House series.

The season will start with a two-week visit by the NYC Ballet, Oct. 6 through 17, marking the company's first Kennedy Center engagement in two years, a return abetted by the recently installed Opera House dance floor specially designed by Ronald Bates of the NYCB staff. Of the 19 ballets to be staged here, 10 will be Washington premieres. The programs will include works both from the company's Stravinsky Centennial Festival produced earlier this year in New York, and the troupe's 1981 Tchaikovsky Festival.

The ABT repertoire for its first two weeks, Dec. 7 through 19, will feature the premiere of a new production of August Bournonville's romantic classic, "La Sylphide," with decor by Desmond Heeley and choreographic supervision by Erik Bruhn; the Washington premiere of a new revival of Balanchine's "Sinfonia Concertante" of 1947, with its Mozart score of the same title; a revival of Jerome Robbins' "New York Export: Opus Jazz"; and the Washington premiere of Lynne Taylor-Corbett's "Great Galloping Gottschalk," created last year for ABT.

The Joffrey Ballet visit is scheduled for Feb. 22 through 27 and the Dance Theatre of Harlem for March 1 through 6. The series will close with the Ballet West debut, May 11 through 15, in repertory including works by Balanchine, Christensen, Bournonville and Bruce Marks, as well as the company's new full-length production of "Swan Lake."

To make the ballet series financially feasible, the Kennedy Center has committed itself to raising more than half a million dollars from private sources to cover estimated costs beyond the projected maximum box office revenues. The public is being offered 11 subscription plans, ranging from $42 to $196.50.