Alice Walker's novel "The Color Purple," Judith Thurman's biography of Isak Dinesen, Fox Butterfield's "China: Alive in the Bitter Sea" and historian Alan Brinkley's "Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin and the Great Depression" are among the 30 winners of the 1983 American Book Awards, announced yesterday in New York.

The prize for best first novel went to "The Women of Brewster Place," by Gloria Naylor; Galway Kinnell's "Selected Poems" and Charles Wright's "Country Music" shared the poetry award; Abraham Pais' study of Albert Einstein received the science honors; and Lisa Goldstein's "The Red Magician" won the original paperback award.

This year's winners:

FICTION. Hardcover: "The Color Purple" by Alice Walker (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich). Paperback: "The Collected Stories of Eudora Welty" (Harvest/HBJ). First Novel: "The Women of Brewster Place" by Gloria Naylor (Viking).

GENERAL NONFICTION. Hardcover: "China: Alive in the Bitter Sea" by Fox Butterfield (Times Books). Paperback: "National Defense" by James Fallows (Vintage).

HISTORY. Hardcover: "Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin and the Great Depression" by Alan Brinkley (Knopf). Paperback: "Utopian Thought in the Western World" by Frank E. Manuel and Fritzie P. Manuel (Belknap/Harvard).

ORIGINAL PAPERBACK. "The Red Magician" by Lisa Goldstein (Timescape/Pocket Books).

AUTOBIOGRAPHY/BIOGRAPHY. Hardcover: "Isak Dinesen: The Life of a Storyteller" by Judith Thurman (St. Martin's). Paperback: "Nathaniel Hawthorne in His Time" by James R. Mellow (Houghton Mifflin).

POETRY (cowinners). "Selected Poems" by Galway Kinnell (Houghton Mifflin) and "Country Music" by Charles Wright (Wesleyan University Press).

SCIENCE. Hardcover: " 'Subtle is the Lord. . .': The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein" by Abraham Pais (Oxford). Paperback: "The Mathematical Experience" by Philip J. Davis and Reuben Hersh (Houghton Mifflin).

TRANSLATION. "Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du Mal" translated by Richard Howard (David R. Godine).

CHILDREN'S BOOKS. Hardcover fiction: "Homesick: My Own Story" by Jean Fritz (Putnam). Paperback fiction (cowinners): "A Place Apart" by Paula Fox (Signet/NAL) and "Marked by Fire" by Joyce Carol Thomas (Avon Flare). Nonfiction: "Chimney Sweeps" by James Cross Giblin (Crowell). Hardcover picture books (cowinners): "Miss Rumphius" by Barbara Cooney (Viking) and "Doctor DeSoto" by William Steig (Farrar, Straus & Giroux). Paperback picture books: "A House is a House for Me" by Mary Ann Hoberman, illustrator Betty Fraser (Puffin/Viking).

GRAPHICS. Book design/pictorial: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll, designer/illustrator Barry Moser, art director Steve Renick (University of California Press). Book design/pictorial: "A Constructed Roman Alphabet" designer/illustrator David Lance Goines, art director William F. Luckey (David Godine). BookGRAPHICS. Book design/pictorial: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll, designer/illustrator Barry Moser, art director Steve Renick (University of California Press). Book design/pictorial: "A Constructed Roman Alphabet" designer/illustrator David Lance Goines, art director William F. Luckey (David Godine). Book illustration/collected art: "John Singer Sargent" by Carter Ratcliff, designer Howard Morris, editor Nancy Grubb, production manager Dana Cole (Abbeville Press). Book illustration/original art: "Porcupine Stew" by Beverly Major, illustrator Erick Ingraham, designer/art director Cynthia Basil (Morrow Junior Books). Book illustration/photo: "Alfred Steiglitz: Photographs and Writings" by Sarah Greenough and Juan Hamilton, designer Eleanor Morris Caponigro (National Gallery of Art/Callaway Editions). Cover design/mass-market paperback: "Key Exchange" by Kevin Wade, designer Martha Sedgwick, art director Matt Tepper (Avon). Cover design/trade paperback: "Bogmail" by Patrick publishers thought did not reflect the broader commercial needs of the business--e.g., paperbacks) to honor and promote books written and published by Americans citizens. This year more than 1,000 entries were submitted by the houses for consideration. By Feb. 15, TABA judging panels--which, unlike the NBA juries, include booksellers, librarians and publishing executives--had reduced the list to 96 nominees. The awards--$1,000 and a Louise Nevelson sculpture--are to be presented on April 28 in a ceremony at the New York Public Library.