Bob Dylan has settled an assault suit filed by free-lance photographer Gary L. Aloian, who grappled with the singer-songwriter at Los Angeles International Airport in 1983, court sources said yesterday.

Aloian's $100,000 suit was scheduled for trial yesterday before U.S. District Judge A. Wallace Tashima, but was dismissed under terms of an out-of-court agreement reached last week. Terms of the settlement were not included in the court file, and Aloian's attorney, Elizabeth Ratner, said she could not comment.

Aloian claimed Dylan grabbed him and placed him in a headlock after the photographer tried to take his picture. The attack left him "twisted around, scratched and otherwise injured and . . . frightened and put in fear for his life." In his deposition, Dylan says he was annoyed by Aloian repeatedly taking flash photos at close range. Dylan said when he attempted to grab the paparazzi's camera, Aloian "fell to the ground screaming 'murderer, rapist . . . killer.' I was astounded at that antic." A Soldier Cover Girl

For the first time in its 10-year history, the December issue of Soldier of Fortune, the military-adventure magazine, sports a tough, gun-wielding woman on its cover.

Executive Editor Bill Guthrie said yesterday that the magazine had been looking for a woman to grace the cover for more than a year. The magazine's management selected a photo of actress Ingrid Pitt from her role in the espionage film "Wild Geese II." Guthrie said, "The movie is not particularly good. It was the fact that it was a woman in a dynamic role and a dynamic frame."

"Given the expanding role of women in the military, we thought it was past time that this be reflected on the cover of our magazine," Publisher Robert K. Brown said. Still, according to Guthrie, less than 5 percent of the magazine's 200,000 combined circulation sales are to women. 'The Killer' Fights Back

Singer Jerry Lee Lewis had about a third of his stomach removed yesterday during an operation to correct a bleeding ulcer, and his wife Kerrie said doctors at Methodist Hospital in Memphis told her the surgery was successful. Kerrie's announcement drew cheers and dancing in the hospital halls from two dozen friends who awaited the word on his condition.

On Monday, doctors reportedly had told Lewis' family that he had a 50-50 chance of surviving the operation. But yesterday Dr. Gerald Liberman said those reports were a result of a "misunderstanding," and that Lewis was not in imminent danger of dying, even though he had lost "a significant amount" of blood before being admitted to the hospital.

Lewis was hospitalized Friday for abdominal pains. Doctors discovered three stomach ulcers, one of which was bleeding. End Notes

Dr. Jonas Salk and the 30th anniversary of the polio vaccine will be honored tonight at a black-tie dinner at the Four Seasons Hotel ballroom. Salk was working under a March of Dimes grant when he discovered the vaccine and, fittingly enough, the $250-a-plate dinner is a benefit for the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. "Nightline's" Ted Koppel will emcee the program, and sponsors include Sens. Lloyd Bentsen, Albert Gore, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Alan Cranston and Strom Thurmond. Also expected are all the White House Cabinet members, Speaker of the House Tip O'Neill and TV newsmen Sam Donaldson and Eric Sevareid . . .

President Reagan intends to nominate Lois Burke Shepard of Potomac to be the director of the Institute of Museum Services, the White House announced yesterday. The institute provides federal subsidies to museums and zoos . . .

The Soviet chess squad at this month's world team championship will include Anatoly Karpov but not Gary Kasparov, who took the world individual title from Karpov last weekend, organizers said yesterday. Spokesman Ottavio Bovo said the Soviet chess federation gave no explanation for its selection of the team members. He added that the two men might not have wanted to play together so soon after their championship match. Both Karpov and Kasparov were on the 10-player roster the federation announced in September, but the list was narrowed to eight after the championship match. The team championships are scheduled for Nov. 15-28 in Lucerne, Switzerland. -- Lisa Serene Gelb