Writing, lecturing, appearing on television and running cooking schools no longer satisfy today's energetic chefs in their search for teaching outlets. Competition is growing within the professional world of food as a broad range of teachers -- from such internationally known culinary whizzes as Julia Child, Giuliano Bugialli and Ken Hom to relative unknowns such as Chinese chef Titus Chan -- peddle their expertise on videocassettes.
Their topics are equally broad, ranging from advanced lessons packed with details on stocks and sauces, to the world of chocolate, to joke-filled magazine formats with recipes even beginners may have tried before. The tapes range in price from $20 to $89.95, and in length from 30 minutes to 2 1/2 hours.
Though fewer than two dozen cooking videos were mass marketed before this year, predictions are that by fall we will be looking at a market flooded with wider and more varied choices than ever before. At least two dozen additional videos are scheduled for release by fall, "many just in time for the Christmas rush," said Leslie Grey, senior editor at Home Video Publisher, an industry newsletter.
They will include 13 half-hour videos with French chef Paul Bocuse (produced by Kartes Video Communications to sell for approximately $10 apiece) and a six-part series of one-hour tapes by Julia Child titled "The Way To Cook" (coproduced by Julia Child Productions, WGBH-TV and Alfred A. Knopf to list at $39.95 each).
Producers are taking their chances on tapping into this potentially fast-growing, but to date, economically unsuccessful "how-to" market, Grey said. Financial success from this category of videocassettes does not come easily. While some of the early tapes are still available, others have been taken off the market due to a lack of sales.
What makes the future look brighter, said Grey, is the projection for VCR sales in 1985. In 1982 there were 5 million American households with VCRs, while a predicted 23 million-plus households will have VCRs by the end of this year, she said. That's just under one in every four households in the United States. As the VCR base widens there will be more demand to meet specialized interests, according to Grey, and how-to videos, those that tell viewers how to cook, do home repairs and exercise, for example, will be the next big boom.
However, current sales indicate that the boom is not yet here. Typically, 1.2 percent of the videocasettes stocked for rental and sale in the average video store are in the how-to category, compared to 67.9 percent in movies, she said. The remainder include adult entertainment (13.3 percent), children's entertainment (10 percent), music (6.5 percent), and sports and documentaries (1.1 percent).
In addition, within the how-to category, cooking videos are second in popularity, by a long shot, to exercise tapes, Grey said. Just how much revenue the cooking tapes have brought in over the years has not been released by producers.
"They producers only release figures if they are successful," she said. It is known that one of the biggest sellers, "Wok Before You Run" (with Stephen Yan, Embassy Home Entertainment), has sold 24,000 copies to date. The total figures for Jane Fonda's workout videos, the biggest seller in the exercise category, are startling in comparison -- more than 755,000 tapes have sold to date and have brought in around $27 million in revenue, she said.
It costs about $300,000 to make a cooking video, says Roger Newman, marketing and sales director at Baffico/Brager Video, Inc.. His company has produced two cooking videos -- "Cooking with Madeleine Kamman" and "Judith Olney on Chocolate," both released in 1984. Costs include paying a star, director, writer, film crew and for a studio and food. Though he won't give sales figures on the tapes or say whether they have broken even, he did estimate that 100,000 inquiries have been received on the tapes since they first came out on the market.
"Sales figures are deceiving," Newman said. "Good growth for a small company is peanuts to a large company." He said his company is not disappointed with sales to date. "Cooking is not a category in the video market yet," he said. But by the end of this year he expects sales to pick up when the number of homes with VCRs increases.
Jane Friedman, vice president and associate publisher at Knopf, says her company is well aware of the low sales figures for cooking videos, but is optimistic about the soon-to-be released Julia Child tapes. "A lot of people know Julia and would love to have her teaching them in the privacy of their own homes. She evokes confidence."
Before producing the Child tapes, producers studied existing videos and made changes in teaching technique, sequencing and camera work with lengthy close-ups of food cooking in the pots and of Child's hands.
"The cooking videos that are out now are opening new roads for us," Friedman said. In addition to the filming changes, what sets the Child tapes apart from all the others is that "it is the first complete, strictly instructional set of tapes," Friedman said. "It emphasizes the basics of good cooking," and lessons build upon one another within the tapes. The tapes are expected to lead to a major new cookbook to be released in 1986 or 1987, she said.
While it is impossible to review what has yet to finish production, many of the tapes that are already on the market or are about to be marketed are worth a closer look. Here is what we found, in order of their release, working back from the most recent. They are or will be available in video stores and some bookstores unless otherwise indicated.
"Craig Claiborne's New York Times Video Cookbook," NYT Productions and Warner Communications, Inc., 106 minutes, $49.95, October 1985 release
Just a few minutes with New York Times food editor Craig Claiborne, and his warm, easy style, and you feel as though you've known him for years. Though this is a fast-moving tape, Claiborne doesn't seem to be rushing through the more than 15 dishes he demonstrates. His entrees, soups, international dishes, desserts and specialties range from simple to mildly complicated, and nothing is so involved that prior training is required. He teaches useful techniques in every dish. Any aspiring cook, for example, would want to know the techniques for making mayonnaise and souffle's and different ways to flavor them, and who doesn't want a great recipe for Buffalo Chicken Wings?
His clearly written recipe booklet enables students to concentrate on the visuals rather than writing down ingredient lists. There are lengthy camera shots of food while it cooks so students get a bird's eye view of textural changes during the cooking process. His universal message for any cook is to measure and organize. Do that, "and food becomes a pleasure to cook," he says.
Pay attention to the beautiful table settings, flowers and garnishes at the end of each demonstration. Claiborne doesn't mention them, but there are so many unusual ideas that you wouldn't want to miss one.
"A Guide to Chinese Cooking (with Ken Hom)," Videocraft, 1 hour, 26 minutes, $49.95, available June 1985
You can't help but notice Hom's nervousness in the first 15 minutes of this tape, but he doesn't let that stop him from sharing a plethora of information with his students. Once he gets into discussing his favorite topic -- Chinese food -- his tension fades away.
The tape opens with a thorough discussion of the necessary and not-so-necessary chopping and cooking equipment associated with this cuisine -- cleaver, paring knife, wok, steamer, deep-fry basket and long-handled spatula, ladle and chopsticks (the last three are not so necessary, he says). Then he shows how to use each to prepare his unusual, though seemingly simple, recipes. He uses the heavy, cumbersome cleaver as though it were an extension of his hand for cutting, peeling, boning and butterflying -- and tells viewers that perfection in handling this tool will only come with practice.
There are dozens of cooking hints and explanations throughout the tape. Cooking oil is added to a hot wok to seal the pan and keep the food from sticking. High heat is the essential secret to Chinese cooking since it keeps the oil from seeping into the food and leaving it greasy.
He also tells us there is no way to give estimates on cooking times since they depend on the amount of food in the wok and the intensity of the flame underneath it; but a piece of chicken, for example, is done when it has turned opaque and feels firm to the touch.
He discusses seasoning as it applies to each dish and substitutions to use in case you can't get the ingredients nearby. For example, you can substitute cider vinegar for rice wine, and dried red chili peppers for Chinese chili paste. Light soy sauce is used for marinating, while dark soy sauce is heavier and is used in cooking.
Velveting (a technique that keeps meat from overcooking, tenderizes and seals in the juices by first coating it with a little cornstarch and then blanching it in hot, but not smoking, oil) is a favorite technique on this tape and he show how to use it for chicken and shrimp. He also deep-fries tofu, steams fish fillets and show how to stir-fry greens.
Hom says he doesn't give recipes on the tape or in a recipe book because he wants his students to learn to use recipes only as a guide. "You musn't feel dogmatic about it the recipes you use ; use your imagination -- that is what cooking is all about." Still, his recipes make use of so many ingredients that you miss having the printed word to fall back on.
"A Guide to Good Cooking (Secrets of a Master Chef) with Jacques Pepin," Videocraft, 1 hour, 29 minutes, $49.95, April 1985
If you love kitchen techniques and cooking hints, you're going to love this tape. It is chock full of beginners' tidbits such as: Peel tomatoes over a gas flame if you've only got a few to do; store peeled garlic in olive oil in the refrigerator; boiling water toughens eggs and cooling them too quickly turns the yolks green; cut the wishbone from the chicken or turkey before roasting it, to facilitate carving off the breast meat; the next time you make cracklings from the skin of a chicken try baking them at 400 degrees instead of using a saute' pan. Pepin also discusses the best equipment to use for different types of cooking (copper and heavy-gauge aluminum are best for frying, stainless for boiling soup).
"Buy the best of the line," Pepin advises; equipment selection is a topic he covers in some depth. "It is likely that you will give it to your children or grandchildren." . . . "A good knife is the most important piece of equipment you can have in the kitchen; it is used for chopping, slicing and paring," he says. And he warns that it is up to the cook to keep it sharp. He recommends high-carbon steel knives because they don't discolor over the years.
One would not suspect there was so much to know about poaching an egg: A teaspoon of vinegar holds the egg together better, and running a spoon over the surface of the cooking water just over the egg forces the egg to move around the bottom of the pan and keep it from sticking. And only the practiced chef would know that depending on the liquid you add to a roux, you will get four different sauces -- milk gives you a white sauce, and chicken, veal or fish stock give you a sauce veloute'.
You don't miss the fact that there is no recipe booklet with the cassette or ingredient list at the end of each segment. This is as heavy a technique tape as there is on the market to date. When Pepin is finished with his lesson, students can go to the cupboard and make a simple dinner, letting their imaginations be their guides.
"Madeleine Kamman Cooks," Baffico/Breger Video, Inc., 2 volumes, 2 1/2 hours, $89.95, 1984
"He who doesn't goof up, doesn't cook up," says gray-haired, square-faced Madeleine Kamman as she smiles into the camera. There is something comforting about this great French chef and knowing teacher telling her students that it is OK to make mistakes. Hers is a valuable cooking lesson for the serious cook, though somewhat expensive with ingredients the likes of saddle of lamb, veal loin and saffron pasta. It is also a little more difficult than Kamman makes it look during the lessons.
The tapes start with Kamman in her cozy French-style country kitchen surrounded by the foods whose preparation she will demonstrate. With a high-pitched voice and thick French accent she tells us that versatility is the theme of her lesson. In getting her message across she warns she will give not recipes, but important techniques that are applicable to all types of dishes.
"Watch me," she stresses throughout the tapes; she does not want the student to be bogged down taking notes (a recipe book comes with the tape). She is the only instructor of those sampled here to talk about using color and garniture to make food beautiful.
Both tapes concentrate heavily on meat preparation. Part I discusses duck and its various uses; Part II veal and lamb and their various uses. In the typical French way, nothing goes to waste. When she cuts up a duck, the camera zooms in close so the student can see exactly how it is done. She reserves the neck and gizzard for soup, the skin is cooked down into cracklings, the fat and legs are used to make a confit and the breast is saute'ed and served with a sauce cacao. When she cuts the sirloin and tenderloin from a saddle of lamb and side of veal, the flap, trimmings and bones are used in veal stock. She warns that too many carrots and onions in stock can leave it overly sweet. The food looks so beautiful on this tape that you can almost taste it as she holds out the finished products.
In addition to the meats, Kamman also demonstrates pasta-making and a number of desserts. She rolls the pasta both by hand and with a machine. And her section on "stirring desserts" would make the teeth itch of anyone fond of cre me anglaise.
"Judith Olney on Chocolate," Baffico/Braeger Video, Inc., 1 hour, $39.95, 1984
You don't have to be in love with chocolate to enjoy Olney's fascinating peek into the world of chocolate, but you may need the patience of an angel in order to decipher her recipes.
Things happen quickly in this single-theme cooking lesson. Even the first segment on the history of chocolate and important tips for handling chocolate is filled with details that students can miss the first time around.
Olney, a teacher, lecturer and author, begins her cooking with chocolate truffles, and quickly moves on to a chocolate-glazed raspberry cake, chocolate garnishes, Mexican chocolate mousse and a finale of a spectacular chocolate cabbage sponge which makes use of all the techniques demonstrated on the tape.
The biggest problem is the lack of a recipe book. It takes at least an hour to copy down the recipes, and even then you are writing and pushing the rewind button so often that you are bound to leave something out when you go to try a recipe.
In order to take advantage of this tape it is best to watch it two or three times. Watch it the first couple of times just to understand Olney's techniques, then the third time copy down the recipes. It also wouldn't hurt to have a working knowledge of chocolate.
"Wok Before You Run," Embassy Home Entertainment, 60 minutes, $39.95, 1984
Stephan Yan is all smiles and jokes as he opens with a discussion of ingredients and equipment to have on hand and closes with a listing of those products he manufacturers. The video looks like a compilation of television shows filmed live and spliced into one long tape, though producers tell us the information is all new. It is loaded with wok puns like those printed on his various aprons: "All wok, but no play," "Wok your butts off," "Wok's new pussycat?"
This is a beginners' tape with some routine Chinese recipes that most have tried before: chicken chow mein, fried rice, sweet-and-sour pork, cashew-nut chicken, lemon chicken. His most valuable lesson is how to bone a chicken breast with your fingers by first sticking a finger in the lower rib cage hole and exposing the inside muscle, then forcing the meat away from the bone.
There are many interesting garnishes that he rarely discusses. One -- a carrot palm tree -- is simple, adorable and worth knowing about. Peel a carrot and cut a flat end to serve as the trunk. Then halve a green pepper by cutting a jagged circle around the circumference. The ribs and seeds are removed and one umbrella-like half is placed on top of the carrot. The pepper is secured with a toothpick.
"Guests Tomorrow, Cook Today," Cuisinarts, 39 minutes, $20 plus $2 postage and handling, 1983
Columnist and cooking teacher Abby Mandel is an expert at showing her students how to make meals in the food processor without washing the bowl between steps. But $20 is a lot of money to spend to learn new ways to avoid washing the dishes.
Guests Tomorrow, one of two beginner tapes produced by Cuisinarts, is the ultimate of "happy talk" formats on video tapes. It opens with pictures of Mandel surrounded by the four delicious-looking dishes she will demonstrate.
Unfortunately, there are more shots of her toothy smiles than what is going on in the pot or processor bowl. The recipes, though not particularly inventive -- a gazpacho, pepper-cheese bread, meaty salad, fruit salad and fudge cake -- look as though they taste delicious. She emphasizes fast cooking and plugs "DLC-X Cuisinart food processor with the wide mouth feed tube" so many times that one begins to wonder if the recipes will work at all with anything but a wide mouth machine (we found out later that at least the bread works fine without one).
Hint: Ask for the recipe booklet when you order the tape or you will find yourself with a painful case of writer's cramp or will be writing back to the company for the recipes.
To obtain a copy write: Cuisinarts, Inc. 411 West Putnam Ave., Greenwich, Conn. 06830
"Food Processor Recipes of the American Southwest," Cuisinarts, 23 minutes, $20 plus $2 postage and handling, 1983
Though we've all heard of southwestern American cooking, not everyone has had the opportunity to taste a lot of dishes from the cuisine. And though Cuisinarts attempts to introduce it to us with terrific recipes like the red chili pasta salad on this tape, it leaves us cold with no discussion of the ingredients that make the food taste so unusual.
As with "Guests Tomorrow," the viewer has a choice of either copying down the recipes from the tape or sending away for the recipe booklet. There is no sense of time here, and preparation seems simple until you try it. Anne Greer doesn't, for example, detail the consistency that the pasta should be once it has been made in the processor. This is an important point since the dough is extremely moist before it is rolled and the recipe says to add more flour if it seems too wet. One is tempted to add a lot more flour. Don't add a lot; it works just fine if you leave it a little moist.
To obtain a copy write: Cuisinarts, Inc. 411 West Putnam Ave., Greenwich, Conn. 06830
"Flavors of China," Warner Home Video, 2 hours, $44.95, 1979
Though long and dragging in parts, this is a good Chinese cooking tape for beginners. Chef Titus Chan discusses equipment and seasonings in depth. Though he uses MSG as an optional standard ingredient to have on any Chinese shelf, he also includes some of the basic important ones, such as soy and oyster sauce and various oils and how they work in Chinese food.
He demonstrates stir-frying, steaming, poaching and deep-frying with straightforward recipes that are on recipe cards so you don't spend hours copying ingredient amounts. RYE, PEPPER AND CHEESE BREAD
(From Guests Tomorrow, Cook Today with Abby Mandel) (Makes three 16-inch loaves)
If you have a smaller model food processor, you will have to do this in two batches or there is a chance you will burn out your motor.
1/4 cup plus 3 tablespoons rye berries
1 large egg
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 package active dry yeast
1 1/2 teaspoons sugar
1 1/2 cups warm water (105 to 115 degrees)
4 1/2 cups bread flour, divided
1 tablespoon salt
1/4 cup vegetable oil
1/2 pound gruye re cheese, room temperature
1 1/2 teaspoons coarsely ground black pepper
Put the rye berries in a 1-quart mixing bowl and cover with water. Let soak for 12 hours or overnight.
Make a glaze by processing egg and salt for 2 seconds in food processor fitted with metal blade. Set aside. Wipe out the work bowl with a paper towel. Stir yeast and sugar into warm water and let sit until foamy, about 10 minutes.
Process all but 2 tablespoons rye berries with 1 1/2 cups of the flour until the berries are very finely ground, about 1 minute and 15 seconds. The berries will be somewhat more coarse than the flour. Carefully remove the metal blade.
Replace dough blade. Add the remaining flour, salt and oil to the work bowl and turn the motor on. Pour in the proofed yeast mixture through the feed tube only as quickly as the flour absorbs it. Once yeast mixture is absorbed, process the dough until fully kneaded, about 1 minute. The dough should mass together, and easily work its way around the work bowl. If the dough sticks add more flour, a tablespoon at a time, letting each addition fully incorporate into the dough before adding more. If the dough seems hard or dry, add water by tablespoons through the feed tube, fully incorporating after each addition. When properly kneaded the dough should be uniformly soft and elastic. Reprocess if any hard knots. Shape into a ball, and transfer to an oiled bowl, rotating dough to cover fully. Heat the oven to 425 degrees for 1 minute and turn it off. Drape the bowl with oiled plastic wrap, oiled side down, and put it in the oven, cushioning the bottom with a potholder. Let the dough rise for 1 1/2 hours, until it has doubled in bulk.
Shred the cheese.
Oil 1 large baking sheet. Divide the dough into 3 equal portions. Roll each portion into a narrow rectangle, making the long side match the length of the baking sheet. Divide the cheese in thirds and distribute evenly over each loaf and gently press it into the surface. Sprinkle 1/2 teaspoon pepper over the surface of each. Pinch the dough up around the cheese tightly to seal the seam. Pinch the ends shut and place the loaves, seam side down, in the prepared baking sheets. Let rise, covered with oiled plastic wrap, until they have almost doubled in bulk, about 45 minutes.
Place the rack in the center of a 425-degree oven. Slash the loaves and brush the top of each loaf with the reserved egg glaze. Sprinkle each with 2 teaspoons of the reserved, drained berries. Bake for 25 minutes, or until the loaves are lightly browned and sound hollow when rapped. Remove the loaves from pans and cool on racks.
Note: Rye berries are available in health food stores and special health food sections of supermarkets. RED CHILI PASTA SALAD
(From Food Processor Recipes of the American Southwest with Anne Greer) (6 to 8 servings)
FOR THE PASTA
1 1/4 cups all-purpose flour
1 1/2 tablespoons chili powder
3/4 teaspoon salt
3/4 teaspoon plus 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
2 egg yolks
FOR THE DRESSING
1 clove garlic, peeled
4 to 5 sprigs fresh coriander or parsley
1/4 cup white wine vinegar
1 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper
1/2 cup vegetable oil
2 teaspoons lime juice
1/2 teaspoon dry mustard
FOR THE SALAD:
1 medium zucchini, cut to fit horizontally in the feed tube of food processor
1/3 cup pine nuts or almonds for garnish
12 to 14 spinach leaves, cut in strips
8 ounces crumbled feta, enchilada or goats milk cheese
Insert the metal blade in a food processor. Add the flour, chili powder, salt and 3/4 teaspoon oil to the work bowl. Have an extra tablespoon of flour conveniently at hand.
Break the yolks into a 1/2 cup liquid measure. Adjust the level by adding water, if necessary, so the liquid measures 1/4 cup plus 1 tablespoon.
Start motor and process dry ingredients, add 1 tablespoon oil. Pour the egg mixture through the feed tube while the motor is running. Process for 15 to 20 seconds or until fine granules form. Stop to scrape the bowl, making sure no clumps of dough cling to the bottom. Check the texture by using the "pinch test." Press a small amount of dough between your thumb and forefinger. It should hold together, feel moist and pliable, and not appear to have separate grains. If it feels wet or sticky, you may need more flour. Add it 1 tablespoon at a time and check the texture again. When satisfied that the mix is right, remove and either roll out by hand or by machine. Cook in boiling water until al dente, about 1 minute after the water returns to the bowl. Drain and toss with remaining tablespoon of vegetable oil and chill.
Fit the work bowl with the metal blade to make the dressing. With motor running, drop the garlic and coriander or parsley through the feed tube and process until minced. Add remaining dressing ingredients to work bowl and process to combine. Remove 1 tablespoon of dressing and reserve it.
Leave the remaining dressing in the bowl and replace the metal blade with the shredding disc. Shred the zucchini into the work bowl and add zucchini and dressing to the chilled pasta. (This may be done up to 12 hours ahead.)
Heat the reserved tablespoon of salad dressing in a skillet and saute' the pine nuts or almonds in it until lightly browned. Drain on paper towels.
To serve, gently toss the pasta, zucchini, cheese, spinach and dressing together. Garnish with the saute'ed pine nuts or almonds. ZARELA MARTINEZ'S CHILI CON CUESO STEAK
(Steak Stuffed with Chilies and Cheese) (From Craig Claiborne's New York Times Video Cookbook) (4 servings)
2 sweet green peppers or hot and spicy chilies
2 tablespoons corn, peanut or vegetable oil
1 small onion, about 1/4 pound
1 small clove garlic, peeled and thinly sliced
6 ounces white or yellow cheddar cheese, cut into pieces about 1 inch thick
4 slices filet mignon, about 6 ounces each
Salt to taste, if desired
Freshly ground pepper to taste
Put the peppers or chilies over a gas flame or heat them over charcoal, turning often, until the outsides are well burnt or charred, about 5 to 7 minutes. Dampen a cloth and add the chilies. Wrap them in the cloth and let cool.
Remove the chilies and carefully scrape away the charred skin. Cut the chili in half. Discard the stems, veins and seeds. Cut the halves into cubes or thin strips.
Peel the onion and cut it in lengthwise strips.
Heat the oil in a saucepan and add the onion and garlic. Cook, stirring briefly. The onion must remain crisp but tender. Add the chilie strips and stir. Remove from the heat.
Cut the cheese lengthwise into thin slices or cubes. Off the heat add the cheese slices to the saucepan and stir to blend.
Slice each piece of meat through the center sandwich fashion, but without cutting totally through. You want to "butterfly" the pieces. Open up the meat on a flat surface and pound lightly with a flat mallet. Sprinkle with salt and pepper.
Spoon equal portions of the cheese mixture onto one side of each opened up piece of meat. Fold over the second side to enclose the filling. Press around the edges with the fingers to seal. Brush lightly with oil on both sides. Sprinkle the steaks with salt and pepper.
When ready to serve preheat a charcoal or gas-fired grill.
Add the beef, cook 2 minutes on one side and turn. Cook 2 minutes on the second side.
Note: To be absolutely authentic in this recipe, you should use the hot fresh poblano chilies, available in markets where Mexican foods are sold. Or you may use the canned, drained contents of a 3-ounce can of whole green chilies. MAGRETS DE CANARD, SAUCE CACAO (From Madeleine Kamman Cooks) (6 servings)
3 tablespoons butter
6 magrets (duck breast fillets), free of skin and sinew
Freshly ground black pepper
2/3 cup veal stock (substitute chicken stock)
Finely grated peel and juice of 1 large orange
1 1/2 tablespoons green chartreuse liqueur
1 teaspoon unsweetened cocoa powder
Dash orange bitters
Peel of 1 large orange, cut into fine julienne strips, boiled in water for 5 minutes and drained
French green beans (recipe follows)
Heat a large skillet over high heat. Add 2 tablespoons of the butter and when it has melted and is just starting to turn nut brown, add the magrets, smooth side down. Brown magrets well on both sides, turning them several times and sprinkling them with salt and pepper. Test magrets with your fingers and when meat feels resilient, remove to a plate and cover with another plate; leave magrets to finish cooking in their own heat while you finish the sauce.
Pour off fat from skillet. Add veal or chicken stock to skillet and boil over high heat until reduced to a sticky glaze. Add orange juice and finely grated peel. Whisk in chartreuse, cocoa and bitters. Boil hard for 1 minute or until sauce coats a spoon. Whisk in the remaining tablespoon of butter. Add all the juices which will have accumulated from the ducks. Strain sauce into a saucepan. Taste and adjust seasoning. Add orange julienne.
Serve magrets on a bed of the green beans and spoon a little sauce over them. FRENCH GREEN BEANS
(From Madeleine Kamman Cooks) (6 servings)
2 pounds green beans
2 tablespoons butter
Chartreuse for sprinkling on top
Trim beans and cut into fine slivers. Cook 2 to 3 minutes in a large pot of boiling salted water. Drain and plunge into a bowl of cold water to stop beans from cooking. Drain. (Beans may be refrigerated for several hours.) Shortly before serving, heat beans in butter and sprinkle with a little chartreuse.