Brown sugar. Table sugar, or sucrose, coated with a light layer of molasses. Nutritionally the same as table sugar.
Corn syrup. A byproduct of corn starch production containing a combination of the sugars glucose and maltose. Often found in processed foods and soft drinks. Normally corn syrup contains none of the sugar fructose, but today, an enzymatic process is used to make a high fructose corn syrup, which is gaining popularity, particularly for use in soft drinks.
Fructose. Like glucose, a single-molecule sugar. Found naturally in fruits, vegetables and honey. The relative amounts of fructose and glucose present depend on growing procedures and ripeness.
Glucose. Also known as dextrose. This is the common denominator of sugars. It's what all sugars and carbohydrates or starches eventually break down to in the body. Chief sources are fruits, vegetables, honey and corn syrup. Very long chains of glucose are known as starch or carbohydrate molecules and are found in everything from pasta to bread.
Honey. Contains about equal amounts of fructose and glucose, plus about 10 to 23 percent water. May also have some trace elements, such as calcium and phosphorus. Nutritionally equivalent to table sugar. Honey is not recommended for children 1 year and younger because it is not made under sterile conditions and can be a source of infection.
Lactose. The sugar found in milk and milk products. Tastes much less sweet than table sugar. Can cause abdominal cramps in people who have deficient levels of an enzyme that breaks lactose into glucose in the small intestine.
Maple sugar and syrup. Byproducts of the sap from maple trees. Contains sucrose.
Molasses. Predominantly made of sucrose. Also has fairly high levels of iron, although the amount varies depending on the type of molasses. Blackstrap and Barbados molasses contain the most iron. One tablespoon of blackstrap molasses provides about 18 percent of the U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of iron. Other nutrients in molasses are calcium and potassium.
Sucrose. Ordinary table sugar, formed when two single sugars -- glucose and fructose -- are joined. Chief sources are sugar cane, sugar beets, molasses and maple syrup or sugar.
Turbinado sugar. A honey-colored sugar that is slightly less processed than table sugar but no different nutritionally.