There was another demonstration in front of the White House yesterday. But this one was not against abortion or the B-1 bomber. It was against evolution.

In an atmosphere reminiscient of the great "Monkey Trial" a half century ago in Dayton, Tenn., some 50 placard-carrying protesters picketed the executive mansion and urged President Carter to back a congressional investigation challenging the theory of evolution and the tax-supported promotion of it through public schools museums and government publications.

"Science Disproves Evolution," said one sign. "Has Evolution Made a Monkey Out of Your"? and "Communism Depends on Evolution" said others.

Leader of the protesters was Marshall Hall, a one-time left-leaning activist with baby doctor Benjamin Spock's Peoples Party in the early 1970s. Hall says he turned against the "atheism and humanism" of the Peoples Party to become what he is today: a believer in God and an operator of the Florida-based Fair Education Foundation, which fights the teaching of evolution as scientific fact.

"There are only two ways the earth started - either accidental or planned," Hall said. "The intellectuals hate this because it's so simple. But there's no way out of it . . . We can prove the Bibly (version of creation) is true."

Marshall and his wife, Sandra, contend there is new scientific evidence refuting conventional theories of evolution. An example, they say, is the discovery in Texas of dinosaur and human footprints in the same place. This, they say, flies in the face of the contention that dinosaurs became extinct 170 million years before the advent of man.

Further, they say, there are hundreds of accredited scientists prepared to challenge the evolution theory in a congressional investigation.

Most important, Sandra Hall said, is tat public disproff of evolution will destroy communism by undermining its ideological base in atheism and "scientific materialism."