Prince Nicholas Obolensky, 82, who fled Russia during the Bolshevik Revolution and lived most of his life in Italy, died Tuesday at a Long Island nursing home. He suffered from a heart ailment.

From 1968 until 1975, he lived with his son, Prince Alexis N. Obolensky, in Washington.

Born in St. Petersburg, Russia, Prince Obolensky was a graduate of the Imperial Corps des Pages and served as an officer with the 4th Imperial Rifle Guards in World War I.

In 1918, he helped organize a plot to save the Russian Imperial family, but the group arrived too late in Ekaterinburg to prevent the murders of Czar Nicholas II and his family.

Prince Obolensky then fled with his family to Berlin. In 1928, he moved to Italy. He became a lecturer on the history of art, and was associated with the Uffizi and Pitti art galleries in Florence.He also was a chess master and teacher.

In addition to his son, he is survived by a sister, the Duchess Daria de Leuchtenberg-Beauharnais, of Ottawa, and three grandchildren. His wife, Princess Sophia Urusoff, died here in 1974.

The family suggests that expressions of sympathy may be in the form of contributions to the American-Russian Aid Association here.