D.C. Mayor Walter E. Washington, who officially announced his reelection bid just 2 1/2 weeks ago, has raised $25,937 in that time for his campaign, including large contributions from some of the city's most prominent business executives.

However, the mayor's chief rivals in the crucial Sept. 12 Democratic primary, City Council chairman Sterling Tucker and council member Marion Barry, have both raised substantially more, according to reports filed yesterday with the city's Board of Elections and Ethics.

Tucker has collected $127,541 and Barry $104,709, according to their reports. Both council members have been campaigning and raising money for several months.

The mayor's campaign committee reported that it had received $1,000 contributions, the maximum allowed for individuals under city law, from such business officials as real estate investment executive William Calomiris; parking lot magnate Leonard B. (Bud) Doggett Jr.; both restaurateur Ulysses G. (Blackie) Auger and his wife, Lulu; John W. Stadtler, chief executive officer of the National Permanent Federal Savings & Loan Association; Vincent C. Burke Jr., chairman of Riggs National Bank, and former ambassador True Davis.

In addition, two associates of Stadtler at National Permanent, Edgar Peterson, the S&L's president, and Thomas M. Walsh, the institution's board vice chairman, both gave the mayor's campaign $500. Lawyer Carolyn E. Agger Fortras contributed $800 and builder Charles E. Smith donated $500.

The mayor's committee also reported that Local 25 of the Hotel and Restaurant Employes union and the Engineers Political Education Committee contributed $2,000 each, according to the reports.

The election committee for the mayor, which also raised large sums from business executives in his 1974 campaign, reported that it had spent $5,827 so far and has $20,109 on hand.

By contrast, Barry reported spending $101,569 so far and a balance of $3,139. Tucker's campaign reported spending $113,058 and $14,483 on hand.

While many of the initial contributions to the mayor's campaign were large and from the city's business establishment, the bulk of the contributions to Barry since March 10, the last reporting date, were under $100, many of them from people who attended small fund-raisers.

Tucker reported 39 contributions of $1,000 in the last two months, many of them from local business officials.He also raised about $10,000 a handful of campaign parties.

Much of the money spent so far by Barry and Tucker has gone to pay campaign staff workers, although both have also have made substantial expenditures for office supplies and campaign paraphernalia.

Two other Democratic mayoral candidates, John L. Ray and Dorothy Maultsby, reported contributions of $8,681 and $1,472, respectively. Republican mayoral candidate Arthur A. Fletcher reported raising $5,260.

In the race for the Democratic nomination for City Council chairman, Council member Arrington Dixon (D-Ward 4) has raised nearly six times as much as his chief opponent, Council member Douglas E. Moore (D-AT-large).

Dixon reported contributions totaling $24,140, much of it from business leaders, while Moore reported donations of $4,313.

Most of the other 35 candidates for the City Council reported that they had received little financial support so far, although at-large Democratic candidate Betty Ann Kane has raised $10,559, Ward 6 Democratic candidate Patricia Rice Press $8,565, Council member Nadine P. Winter (D-Ward 6) $8,030, Council member Polly Shackleton (D-Ward 3) a total of $4,555, Council member David A. Clarke (D-Ward 1) $4,932 and Democratic at-large contender Marie S. Nahikian $2,726.