The Senate Governmental Affairs Committee approved yesterday by an 11-to-2 vote a civil service revision bill, which, with one exception, gives President Carter the basic elements he had requested in his drive to "make government more responsive and efficient."

The exception involved rejection of changes in lifetime preferences given to able-bodied veterans in federal employment.

A House committee is expected to complete action on a version of the bill later this month, and considerable differences probably will remain to be worked out by House-Senate conferences. The House already has approved changes in the veterans preference law.

A squad of Carter administration officials had been pressing senators to complete action the bill before the July 4 recess in order to "keep up the bill's momentum," as one put it. Such momentum also is providing Carter with his major success story in Congress at the moment.

Some administration officials even offered to provide some senators with plane rides to their districts if they missed connections in the name of civil service reform.

In a final flurry of action on the bill, members approved a compromise which they said would resolve a dispute about who is to judge certain "iffy" discrimination cases involving federal workers.

The compromise provoked an immediate and venomous reaction by a NAACP lobbyist, who shouted at the committee that "this is not the first time blacks have been lynched!"

The dispute involves two reorganization plans sent to Congress by Carter - one is for the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and one sets up, among other things, an independent Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) to handle appeals by federal workers disputing firings or other personnel actions.

The type of cases at issue were those in which discrimination charges and other considerations were mixed. Examples include an employe's competence or an employer's abuse of merit principles.

The compromise would give partly to the two agencies in dealing with such cases, according to Sen. Jacob Javits (R.-N.Y.), who introduced it. If the two agencies disagree about a case, the dispute goes to an appeals court for resolu-

The Carter forces termed the compromise satisfactory.

But NAACP lobbyist Clarence Mitchell called it "arsenic in the ice our guts with these types of amend maintained that, by supporting it, Carter is breaking an earlier promise to give EEOC "paramount authority" in discrimination cases.

After the session, Mitchell vowed to try to persuade the NAACP to oppose the entire bill.

Mitchell reserved his sharpest barbs for committee chairman Abraham A. Ribicoff (D-Conn.). Speaking to reporters after the session, Mitchell called Ribicoff a "lyncher" of blacks and "deceitful and unfair."

"I am disgusted with these northern senators constantly trying to cut out ments," Mitchell said.

Ribicoff defended the amendment as 'balanced' and essential to preserve the basic intent of the MSPB, which is to function as an independent board. Mitchell and others would have made it merely a "way station" in the handling of personnel actions and introduced politics into the appeals process by giving EEOC 'total sway' over it, Ribicoff said.

Ribicoff shrugged off Mitchell's personal attack. "It's a free country, and everybody's entitled to his own opinion," he said.