The organizational framework for President Carter's civil service over-haul plan yesterday won approval from the House, in a 381 to 19 vote.

This portion of the controversial program would split the current Civil Service Commission into two bodies, one to manage the personnel system and the other to protect the rights of federal workers.

Under the president's reorganization authority, the plan will go into effect Friday unless it is unexpectedly disapproved by the Senate.

The more complex legislation that accompanies the reorganization still faces uncertainties in both the House and Senate.

Supporters of the overhaul bill yesterday fought to quell growing speculation on Capitol Hill that the vagaries of time and House Speaker Thomas P. (Tip) O'Neill have virtually killed the bill's chances for this session.

O'Neill, having dropped the civil service bill from his list of priorities for action in August, will try to schedule th bill for floor action in early September, according to an O'Neill aide.

Rep. Morris Udall (D-Ariz.) who is managing the bill for the White House said yesterday he had given the legislation a "50-50 chance" of passage if it had gotten to the floor before the August recess. "I'd say now the odds are three to two against us - but those are still pretty good odds."