Jane B. Broyhill, 58, who participated actively in the campaigns of her husband, Joel T. Broyhill, during his 22 years as a Virginia Republican member of Congress, died yesterday at her home in Arlington. She suffered from a brain cancer.

Although she was not given to making speeches in behalf of her husband, Mrs. Broyhill accompanied him on the tea and coffee circuits. She was almost always by his side at the many rallies that active candidates are required to attend.

"The first campaign is the hardest," she once explained. "But you soon learn what not to spin your wheels on," she added.

She was tht hostess at many night-time receptions in halls and auditori-husband represented until his defeat in 1972.

Mrs. Broyhill was born in Arlington and graduated from Washington-Lee High School. She attended Longwood College in Farmville, Va., and George Washington University.

She was the hostess at many night-time receptions in halls and auditoriums in the 10th District, which her after her marriage. She worked in Republican politics for a number of years before her husband became a candidate.

Mrs. Broyhill had been active in the Arlington Republican Women's Council. She had participated in Philanthropic and community activities, serving as an American Red Cross Grey Lady at National Orthopaedic Hospital and with the Arlington Circle of the Florence Crittenton Home.

She was an active member of Resurrection Lutheran Church. She also was an award-winning golfer.

In addition to her husband, she is survived by three daughters, Jeanne, of the home, Mrs. Robert W. Dudley, of Great Falls, and Mrs. Richard D. Houser, of Oakton; her mother, Mrs. William L. Bragg, of Arlington; two brothers, W. Pierce Bragg, of Purcellville, Va., and William L. Bragg Jr., of Warrenton, and four grandchildren.

The family suggests that expressions of sympathy may be in the form of contributions to Arlington Hospital.