Frederick S. Jaffe, 52, a former vice president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc., died Wednesday following a heart attack in his office in New York City.

Mr. Jaffe was associated with Planned Parenthood from 1954 to 1974. For much of that time he was vice president. In 1974, he became president of the Alan Guttmacher Institute, formerly the education and research division of Planned Parenthood. He remained in that position after the institute became an independent organization a year ago.

Throughout his career, Mr. Jaffe argued that birth control was a matter of health and individual human rights. He stressed these aspects of the issue rather than questions of population.

From 1970 to 1972, he served as a consultant to the President's Commission on Population Growth and the American future and in 1967 as a consultant on the review of family planning programs in the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. In 1968, he was a technical adviser to the president's committee on population and family planning.

Mr. Jaffe was the author of numerous articles in professional journals. He was a coauthor of five books, including "The Impact of Family Planning Programs on Fertility - the U.S. Experience" and "Birth Control and Love."

Mr. Jaffe was born in Queens, N.Y. He earned a bachelors degree in sociology from Queens College.

Survivors include his wife, Phyllis, and three sons, Paul, David and Richard, all of the home in Scarborough, N.Y.