Sophia H. Barringer, 56, a language and religious education teacher and an accomplished musician, died Wednesday at George Washington University Hospital of complications from the Shy-Drager syndrome, a form of Parkinson's disease.

She had taught Russian and German at the Hawthorne, Edmund Burke and Georgetown Day schools until 1948. Earlier she had been on the teaching staff of the School of Religion at All Souls Unitarian Church.

Mrs. Barringer came to the Washington area in 1949 from Philadelphia, where she had taught at the Episcopal Academy and the Miquon School.

She was born in Syracuse, N.Y., and grew up in Rhode Island. She graduated from Sarah Lawrence College in 1945. Later, she studied here and in London and earned a master's degree in Russian literature from American University in 1970.

Mrs. Barringer was a former president of the Parents Pre-School Association of the D.C. public schools. She sand with the Cathedral Choral Society and other choral groups here. She played the viola and violin and was a founding member of the Cleveland Park Chamber Group. She also had played with the Alexandria Civic Orchestra.

She was the wife of Philip E. Barringer, a Defense Department career officer. During a tour of duty in London in 1965-66, Mrs. Barringer was president of the American Embassy Wives Association there.

In addition to her husband, of the home in Washington, she is survived by two sons, Thomas H. of Fort Collins, Colo., and Paul M., of Boston; a daughter, C. Francis, of Hartford, Conn.; her mother, Mrs. Thomas P. Hazard, of Boston; two sisters, Mrs. Elliot Richardson, of Washington and Boston, and Mrs. James K. Conrad, of Albuquerque, N.M. and two brothers, Thomas P. Hazard Jr., of Rockville, and Oliver C. Hazard, of New York. CAPTION: Picture, SOPHIA H. BARRINGER