Crescenciana C. Sarmiento, 70, a native of the Philippines who was active in Filipino cultural groups and civic affairs in the Washington area, died Tuesday at the Greater Southeast Community Hospital of complications following a stroke. She lived in Oxon Hill.

Mrs. Sarmiento was an elementary school teacher in her native country before coming to the United States with her family in 1950. She and her husband of 48 years, retired Army Capt. Pedro Sarmiento, lived at Army bases in this country and in Germany before moving to this area in 1958 after his military retirement.

As a volunteer with the Philippine-Americans for Community Action and Development, Mrs. Sarmiento used her singing and songwriting talent to teach youngsters of Filipino heritage about the customs and culture of the Philippines through songs she wrote herself.

She was active in the Association of Philippine-American Women, was chairman of the fund-raising committee for the Sharpe Health School PTA, and held several elective offices with the Vicente Lim Post 5471 Women's Auxiliary of the Veterans of Foreign Wars.

Besides her husband, of the home, survivors include two daughters, Maria S., also the home, and Mrs. Rudolfo Bandong, of Santa Ana, Calif.; five sons, Pedro D., and Vicente G., both of Oxon Hill, Rafael, of Kaduna, Nigeria, and Anthony R., and Pedro Jr., both of Washington; a sister, Mrs. Pedro Javier, of the Philippines, and seven grandchildren.

The family suggests that expressions of sympathy be in the form of contributions to the Sharpe Health School of Washington. CAPTION: Picture, CRESCENCIANA SARMIENTO