Palmer Hoyt, editor and publisher of The Denver Post until his retirement eight years ago, died yesterday at a Denver hospital, where he was being treated for a bladder infection. He was 82.

Mr. Hoyt, who headed the Colorado newspaper for 25 years, was an outspoken critic of the late Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy in the early 1905s, calling him "a grave threat to all our basic liberties by his comtemptuous flouting of the riths of individuals."

A few years later, at the height of the school desegregation crisis in Little Rock, Ark., Mr. Hoyt told a gathering of the Arkansas Press Association that the world believed that an American state had tried to use armed forces to derpive black children from getting an education. Twenty-six persons attending the speech walked out, while another 225 people sat in silence as the publisher called the Little Rock situation a great danger to the American way of life.

Mr. Hoyt was born in Roseville, Ill., the son of a Baptist minister. He attended schools in Missouri and Oregon. He served 18 months in the 3rd Oregon Infantry in France in World War I and later received a bachelor's degree from the University of Oregon before starting his journalism career.

He worked three years in the miid-1920s at the Pendleton East Oregonian before starting a rapid rise on the staff of the Portland Oregonian, of which he became publisher in 1939.

Mr. Hoyt served as national president of Sigma Delta Chi, the professional journalistic society, in 1942 and as domestic director of the Office of War Information in 1943. He became publisher of The Denver Post in 1946.

Over a period of years, Mr. Hoyt turned the once flamboyant Post into a conservative newspaper aimed at thoroughly convering the news.

In the mid-1960s, Mr. Hoyt served on the US. Advisory Commission on Information. CAPTION: Picture, PALMER HOYT