Health insurance premiums for most federal workers and retirees will jump approximately 10 percent next January. The Plan covers more than 600,000 people in the Washington area.

Exact premium rates will vary, depending on which plan employes chose, and options within those 104 participating plans. The federal health program is the world's largest civilian "company" plan. It covers more than 8 million workers and dependents.

Effect of the rate and benefit changes, approved yesterday by the Office of Personnel Management, will increase premium costs $150 million a year for employes, and raise the government contribution to those plans more than $250 million annually.

Information on precise rate and benefit changes made by the carriers will be available, in brochure form, to employes through their agency personnel offices.

The government pays between 60 percent and 75 percent of the health insurance premium for white and blue collar workers and retirees. Again, exact amounts depend on which plan is chosen. The U.S. Postal Service pays between 75 percent and 93 percent of the health insurance premium for its 600,000 workers.

Employes will have an "open season" that will run from Nov. 12 to Dec. 7 this year to make changes in the plan, option or type of coverage they want for the 1980 insurance year.