The Environmental Protection Agency has cited two federal facilities here -- Andrews Air Force Base in Prince George's County and the Naval Research Laboratory in Southwest Washington -- for violating air pollution standards.

Spokesman at both facilities said yesterday, however, that corrective steps already have been taken, and both are awaiting EPA inspections to see if they are back in compliance with local emission limit laws.

R. Sarah Compton, director of EPA's enforcement division in Philadelphia, issued a 30-day notice of violation on Dec. 11 against Andrew Air Force Base, saying a base hospital incinerator had exceeded particulate emissions standards set by the state of Maryland.

Similarly, she said a steam heat boiler at the Naval Research Laboratory next to the Blue Plains sewage treatment plant in Southwest Washington had exceeded District of Columbia pollution emission limits.

Cmdr. Mike Porter, public works officer at the research lab, acknowledged that the facility's two large boilers for generating steam heat have violated local standards recently. But engineers now have implemented corrective measures recommended in a private study of the heating plant, he said, including "securing some air holes in one of the stacks" and "preheating the fuel oil before it goes into the boiler."

He said excessive emissions tend to occur particularly during fluctuations of boiler activity caused by sharp variations in warm and cold weather, such as those here over the last two months.

EPA inspectors are scheduled to check the Naval Reserch Laboratory boiler today, Porter said.

"If the corrective steps have not fixed it," he said, "we may have to go to a more expensive oil."

The plant currently uses No. 6 fuel oil, which typically costs about 72 cents a gallon and is heavier, dirtier and about 20 cents a gallon cheaper than No. 2 oil, the other grade of fuel used at some plants.

At Andrews Air Force Base, spokesmen said the hospital incinerator was originally cited for exceeding Maryland emission standards in September 1978, but has since been modified to meet the standards.

EPA official Abraham Ferdas in Philadelphia said, however, that Andrews' notification of compliance apparently was delayed and did not arrive in EPA's enforcement office until after EPA's 30-day notice of violation went out last month. He said the Andrews incinerator will be inspected by EPA later this month.

The Navel Research Laboratory and Andrews Air Force Base are the only federal facilities that have been cited by EPA in the Washington area under the Clean Air Act.

One facility, the Capitol Power Plant, which heats and cools the Capitol and the Supreme Court, has become a point of controversy. Capitol Hill residents contend it frequently belches smoke in violation of local law, and the Capital Legal Foundation, a business-backed public interest law firm, has taken the House and Senate to court over the matter.

EPA spokesman George V. Bochanski Jr., said yesterday EPA is now looking at the five-boiler complex.

"Some of the boilers were stack-tested last week," he said, "and some will be tested next week . . . We expect test results at the end of the month."