Dr. Robert J. Galiano, 48, a defense analyst who was an authority in the theory of war games and research Methodology, died Wednesday at the National Orthopaedic & Rehabilitation Hospital in Arlington following a heart attack.

From 1957 to 1964, he was with the weapons systems evaluation group at the Institute for Defense Analyses in Arlington. In 1964, he helped found the Lambda Corporation, a consulting and research firm that works on defense projects.

During the next 10 years he served as a vice president and treasurer of Lambda and also participated in the design development of the QUICK General Wargaming System for the Pentagon.

Dr. Galiano was a vice president of the Ketron Corporation from 1974 to 1975, then spent two years with the System Planning and Analysis Corporation, where he worked on programs to evaluate naval arms control proposals.

Since 1977, he had been director of strategic systems of the Decision-Science Applications Corporation, where he helped conduct studies for the Navy Department, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and the Defense Nuclear Agency.

Dr. Galiano was a native of St. Louis. He was a 1953 graduate of St. Louis University and earned a doctoral degree there in a physical chemistry four years later.

His marriage to the former Deloise Dean ended in divorce.

Survivors include his wife, Carla, and three children by his first marriage, Grace, Rita, and Philip, all of Annandale; his father, Samuel, and a sister, Jerrine Eubanks, both of St. Louis, and a grandmother, Josephine Caddie of Birmingham, Ala.

The family suggests that expressions of sympathy be in the form of contributions to the National Capital Chapter of the Multiple Sclerosis Society in Washington.