The four candidates seeking the Republican nomination to run against Rep. Michael Barnes (D-Md.) in the 8th Congressional District in Montgomery County and the five major contenders for the Democratic nomination for the U.S. Senate from Maryland were asked these questions on issues ranging from the imposition of wage-and-price controls to draft registration: Do you favor or opose the use of some type of wage and price controls as a way to deal with inflation? Do you favor or oppose an Olympic boycott? Are you in favor of draft registration? Should women be drafted and if they are, what role, if any, should they play in the military? Do you favor or oppose the D.C. voting rights amendment? If it is ultimately ratified by the states do you think that full representation for the District in the House of Representatives and the Senate will add impetus to a push for a commuter tax? Do you favor or oppose the integration of the federal employes' retirement system into the Social Security system as has been proposed to Congress by a blue-ribbon task force but is opposed by many federal workers who fear it will erode their benefits? Do you favor or oppose the use of federal Medicaid funds for abortions? What is your opinion of President Carter's nomination of Sen. Edmund Muskie as Secretary of State? Do you think it was politically motivated?
The five major contenders for the U.S. Senate nomination were also asked these two questions: Would you be in favor of or opposed to some type of military action against Iran if the hostages are not released within a certain period of time? Do you believe that the economic sanctions imposed by President Carter against the Soviet Union because of its invasion of Afghanistan are working? Or do you oppose those sanctions and feel that something else would work better? Edward T. Conroy
Wage and price controls: I oppose mandatory wage and price controls. The president does not presently possess statutory authority to impose controls. Proposals to provide this standby authority have not elicited sufficient congressional support. Therefore, they face a doubtful political future.
The weight of expert opinion suggests that during the hiatus between a presidential request for control authority and congressional response, prices and wages would go up in anticipation of controls. This situation would produce a new surge of inflationary pressure rather than alleviating the problem. It's history that the abrupt pull-off of the (Richard) Nixon controls and resulting wage-price catch-up efforts is one of the factors contributing to today's record pace inflation.
Olympic boycott: Legislation was introduced in this session of the General Assembly supporting the president in his efforts for an Olympic boycott. I supported that legislation, which came out of the Constitution and Public Laws Committee, which I chair, and my position will be consistent as it was in the Maryland General Assembly. I support the president in the Olympic boycott. On the other hand, I almost feel if we sent our athletes to compete in Russia that all of us would be behind them to the same extent that we were behind the amateur American hockey team that defeated the Russians.
Draft registration and the role of women in the military: I do not oppose a draft, but I feel that in order to make a draft work, there has to be a classification. I do believe that part of the entire problem is that we've been shortchanging the military, that we have serious defense problems. I would support an increase in the defense budget, and I believe that is consistent also with many experts who I join in supporting strongly a recnstitution, restructuring and strengthening of our reserve forces. That would be quicker. We would be able to muster quality people with military experience. We wouldn't have to rely on long-term training which we really don't have the time for (to ensure) the effectiveness of our draftees.
I believe that women who are physically and mentally capable should be treated the same as men who are physically and mentally capable. I was a combat infantry officer myself, and I do believe that whatever type of person, whether it be male or female, who enters into a combat situation, must be physically hard, strong and tough. I don't think women should be forced into that situation.
D.C. voting rights: The D.C. Voting Rights Amendment was introduced not only this year but last year. The committee which I chair heard all of the testimony as far as the D.C. Voting Rights Amendment is concerned. I supported the D.C. Voting Rights Amendment. I believe that we're dealing with human rights, and one of the largest human rights which we have, which we're very proud of . . . is the right to vote. I believe under the circumstances all of our citizens should have that right to vote. The District of Columbia residents and citizens of our nation . . . should not be deprived of that right. As far as the commuter tax is concerned, I absolutely, vociferously oppose the commuter tax. I do not believe that passage of the D.C. Voting Rights Amendment will have any effect on whether the commuter tax is pressed again.
Federal employes: There's no question that it would erode their benefits. I'm absolutely in opposition to it. I believe that when a person did, in fact, seek employment with the federal government, they did so on the basis that one of the main assets of working for the federal government is job protection and also protection as far as retirement is concerned.
Medicaid funds for abortion: I oppose abortion. I oppose abortion for moral reason. I believe -- very strongly believe -- abortion is wrong, that the fetus is viable and that the viable fetus should have certain rights in our society.
The Muskie nomination: I believe we have to look at the merits of the candidate. I believe Sen. Muskie is a quality candidate. I believe in his certain blend which is needed in decision-making . . . today.
He's had the experience of being exposed to all the issues involving the foreign policy of the United States. He also has the ability to work with his colleagues in the Senate and to ensure an early confirmation (by the Senate), avoiding another crisis -- the last thing we need in our government.
Military action against Iran: I am not the secretary of State, nor can I speak for the chief executive of the United States. I believe in the decision-making guide of the commander-in-chief and there can only be one commander-in-chief at a time. The president has to make the decision as to whether or not we should use military authority. I believe that our military is shortchanged. I don't think that (Iran situation) would have ever happened had we the strong deterrent effect of a strong military that we had in past years. Our foreign policy is not a consistent foreign policy because, frankly, we don't now have the image in the world to have the muscle to back up the decisions that are being made.
Economic sanctions: I believe that every tool in our American arsenal should be put to use in order for us to prevail as a nation that represents the leader of the free nations in the world. I believe that we should reward our friends . . . As an example, one of our most trusted allies is the state of Israel. We should maintain that trust without forcing a comprehensive settlement which could deprive them of their defensible borders. We must have a consistent foreign policy toward our friends and use whatever tools are necessary at our disposal to deter aggression and ensure peace through strength. Victor L. Crawford
Wage and price controls: I strongly favor mandatory wage-price and profit controls. The country can go one of two ways. Either we go into deep recession which is where we're sliding into right now or else we put on price controls.
I find a deep recession to be unacceptable completely and totally, so I support mandatory wage price and profit controls and when you put them on, keep them on until such time as these other things work that we're trying to do (like) balance the budget and all the rest of it.
Olympic boycott: Well, it's a very weak gesture but it is a gesture so I would support the Olympic boycott. I think it's a very, very ineffective thing to do but at least it's doing something so of course I have to support the boycott.
Draft registration and the role of women in the military: At this time, since the head of selective services has said that he does not favor registration for the draft, I cannot favor registration for the draft.He has said that it's wasteful, it's not needed and the Pentagon has said it's going to take 180 days to mobilize and registration will only save seven days and by the time we need it, it's probably out of date anyway. So at this time I would not support registration for the draft, and I will not support registration for women.
D.C. voting rights: I favor the D.C. voting rights amendment and I voted in favor of it. I am very fearful that it may very well give greater impetus to the D.C. commuter tax. The choice I was faced with was that there were 675,000 people in the District of Columbia who were American citizens who were disenfranchized, and even though I am opposed to the D.C. commuter tax vehemently, I don't think that issue should cloud the other one.
Federal employes: At this time I would have to oppose the integration of the federal employes retirement system into the Social Security system until such time as I would find out the reasons and the rationale for it. Everybody takes the opportunity to attack the federal employes. Now there are a few who are not hard working, but by and large they're a hard working lot and I would not at this time favor that.
Medicaid funds for abortion: I have consistently voted in favor of medicaid funding for abortion in the General Assembly and I have always believed that the Supreme Court says that abortion is legal it must be legal for all women regardless of their pocketbooks.
The Muskie nomination: I can't make a statement to whether it was politically motivated. I just don't know. Sen. Muskie is a very eminent man. However he chairs the budget committee and I would prefer to have seen someboyd more versed in the field of foreign affairs than Sen. Muskie. However I can't say that it was politically motivated.
Military action against Iran: As long as the hostages are alive and their lives are not threatened I can't favor military action which might very well endanger their lives. They've suffered enough. Only if it appears that Iran is going to put them on trial and that their lives are in jeopardy -- in that case I believe military action is called for. But we must use, we must exhaust every other effort, diplomacy, economic sanctions, everything else to try to save the hostages.
Economic sanctions: I believe the sanctions are not working. The Soviet Union will not be put off by economic sanctions. What we need is a better intelligence system. We need to be better prepared for such emergencies as what happened in Afghanistan. Dean Acheson said it 25 years ago when he told a congressional committee that the Russians were like the fish in troubled waters. To ask them not to fish or make a treaty with them not to fish in troubled waters is going against their force of nature, so it's the policy of the United States of America to insure there's no troubled waters in which they can fish. I think it makes as much sense in 1980 as it did in 1952 and that should be the policy of the United States. i Robert L. Douglass
Wage and price controls: I'm in favor of giving the president of the United States the right to impose wage and price control, but only as part of a total comprehensive package on inflation, particularly where a part of the package is an objective to get the inflation rate down to a certain level.
I'm not just in favor of Congress trying to vote wage and price controls. I don't think that can be done in that way. It has got to be done by the president of the United States. We have to give him that power to do that as part of a total comprehensive package.
Olympic boycott: I'm in favor of an Olympic boycott. I think we have to use whatever means at this point to indicate our displeasure at Russia for their action in Afghanistan.
Draft registration and role of women in the military: I'm in favor of both women and men being drafted, but I'm not in favor of women being used for combat. I think there are many jobs that can be held by women, but I have a problem conceiving of a woman on the front lines.
I think they should be registered, too. I think that because I'm one of those people who was in favor of ERA.
I believe that if you're saving that men and women ought to have the same rights, which I do believe, then I think when the draft and registraion comes up, I think they ought to be allowed, required to register too.
I'm in favor of the registration. What has been put forth in congress and by the president of the United States has been the registration so that we could cut down on the amount of time for mobilization. I think that's necessary, completely necessary, in this day and age when we will be fighting the kind of war that I suspect we'd be fighting -- some push-button war -- although we're going to have need for infantry, soldiers, so you've got to have some lead time.
D.C. voting rights: I'm in favor of it. (But) I don't really think so, as far as the commuter tax (goes.) I don't believe that necessarily has to follow, particularly under the D.C. voting rights amendment that we passed. It still gives Congress the right to veto any commuter tax.
Federal employes: I'm in favor of them becoming a part of Social Security. I believe that's one of the reasons our inflation is so high because of Social Security rate increase has been geared to the cost level and there's not enough money being generated in today's economy by the people who are in social security to take care of those who are on social security. I think the only way to answer that is to make the federal group a part of the social security system.
Medicaid funds for abortion: I'm in favor of that because I think that those people who are opposed to the use of medicaid funds are opposed only to poor women having the same rights and freedom of choice as a rich woman has or a women with money has. As long as abortions are legal and continue to be decreed so by the Supreme Court, I believe that funds on federal and state levels ought to be used by poor women if they have need for an abortion.
The Muskie nomination: I have looked at that on several sides and I think it was a good nomination. I think the slot provides for him a closer entree to the foreign relations committees in Congress, particularly Frank Church's committee, which Muskie was a part of. I think it takes him away from having to alienate many of the (Cyrus) Vance loyalists that have been put in key spots in the State Department. I think had he appointed (Zbigniew) Brezinski it would probably have cost him a lot of mass resignations. I think . . . Muskie was a good choice . . . because he does have some knowledge of foreign relations since he has worked on that committee for many, many years.
Military action against Iran: Let's say that I'm still in favor of the rescue mission, the aborted rescue mission. Of course, now that the militants have said they've moved the (hostages) to various locations -- which I do not believe, incidentally -- I would be in favor of the (U.S. authorities) making an effort to do that (type of rescue mission) in the future if it's necessary or if there's a reasonable chance of success. Beyond that, (in) the retaliatory vein, I don't believe that . . . if anything happens to the (hostages,) I don't believe that we should do anything at this point unless we declare war against (Iran) and I think that's going to have world-wide implications . . . and we must understand that. I believe that the economic sanctions and the support of our allies in that regard will do the job eventually.
Economic sanctions: I'm in favor of those sanctions and I don't believe because of the size of Russia and, of course, its independence from the rest of the world and many of its needs -- with the exception, of course of grain -- I don't believe that you're going to see an immediate effect of those sanctions. Only if the United States gets some support around the world for applying those sanctions against Russia and I'm in favor of these, I think that we ought to use whatever means are available to us -- outside of war -- to indicate to Russia our displeasure over their imperialistic moves. Dennis C. McCoy
Wage-price controls: As you know, the president does not currently have the authority to impose wage and price controls. I favor giving him the authority to impose wage and price controls, but I do not favor their imposition at this time. I think they're valuable as part of his arsenal for fighting inflation, particulary the threat of their usage rather than their actual imposition.
Olympic boycott: I favor all types of diplomatic solutions or diplomatic approaches to the problem with Afghanistan. Having that, there a limited amount that the president can do and I think the Olympic boycott is one symbolic thing that he can do and I therefore support it.
Draft registration and the role of women in the military:
I am in favor of registration for the draft. Not only because of the current international situation, but because of the changes in demogpraphics which just makes fewer and fewer people for the armed services. I am not in favor of reinstituting a draft at this time but only the registration.
I think that the services should be open to women who want to volunteer and that adjustments should be made for women to participate in every aspect of the armed services. But I do not favor their registration and/or draft at this time
D.C. Voting Rights amendment:
I favor the D.C. Voting Rights Amendment. I've voted for it four times in one session and in the most recent session I voted for it when it was passed. So I do favor it. I favor it from the philosophical point of view as well as from a practical point of view. Philosophically I think everybody who resides within the territorial United States is entitled to have a representation in their legislative bodies, whether they're local, state or federal. I think it's grossly unfair that the citizens of the District of Columbia would be deprived of that representation.
I think commuter taxes, whenever they're imposed, are unwise and counterproductive and they really, while they may provide some short-term capital for one subdivision, their long-term effect is that they skew business location and economic activity and end up hurting the subdivision that's trying to raise the capital.
I think that the Social Security system has to be reviewed and corrected before we can integrate anything into it. One of the main thrusts for the proposal to integrate the federal employes into the (Social Security) system is to provide additional dollars for the Social Security system, which is really not acturaily sound.
Federal Medicaid funds for abortion:
I, in this most recent session of the legislature, voted for an amendment that would allow the usage of the funds in certain reasonable circumstances and I would favor the same thing on the federal level.
The Muskie nomination:
I think it's an excellent nomination and I could suport it. The president can only have cohesive foreign policy if he has a Congress that's willing to work with him and if he has a U.S. Senate particularly that has faith and confidence in his decisions and his direction and the people that are administering his programs. dI think Muskie enjoys that. Therefore, I think that his nomination will allow cooperation between the president and the legislative branch that's absolutely essential.
Military action against Iran:
Under normal circumstances, at the outset, if you're dealing with an organized government, I think that we should take a more forceful approach than we did in the Iranian situation. But I think that our attitude with Iran so far has been appropriate in light of the fact that we're not really dealing with an organized government. And I frankly am still not convinced that anyone is really in charge in Iran. So much so, that I'm not so sure that anyone could dictate the release of the hostages.
If you agree with that proposition then you must agree that direct military intervention may well be counterproductive. In light of the effort that recently failed and in light of the fact that we really do not know where the hostages are now, but that we do know they're not all in one location, direct military intervention would be just unnecessarily risky at this point in time and would accomplish absolutely nothing, because we certainly could not rescue all of them.
Economic sanctions against Russia:
I think that the sanctions are having some impact, but I think more than that, our resistance to the temptation for direct confrontation with the Soviet Union over Afghanistan has in some way increased the effect that we have around the world. I think a lot of countries in the world have been a little bit uncertain about how the U.S. will respond in situations where they're confronted, expecting that we may react precipitously, and out attitude about Afghanistan has certainly reflected that that's not what we're going to do. R. Spencer Oliver
Wage and price controls: I favor the president permanent standby authority to impose wage and price controls when inflation gets out of hand. I wish the president had had those tools available to him when inflation got out of hand several months ago. Olympic boycott: I favor an Olympic boycott. In fact, I drafted the resolution that was eventually passed by both houses of the Congress in my role as staff director of the Helsinki Commission.I think it's important to bring the message home to the world and to the Soviet people that we will not allow sports to be used for propaganda purposes, either in the Soviet Union or abroad, and I think that this is an appropriate message of our protest against their invasion of Afghanistan and their violations of human rights.
Draft registration and the role of women: Well, if there's going to be a draft, I think women should be included. I am a supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment and I think that women should be treated equally with men in all phases. Of course there are different aspects of the military in which women would be more suited for certain kinds of duties than others. I'm opposed to a registration. I think it is unnecessary. I think there are a number of authoritative that have indicated it would only save us seven days and I think even the Selective Service has a report which has indicated to the president of the United States that registration really is not necessary.
He has the authority to impose the draft and in time of emergency and in time when our security is threatened, he can use that authority. I think that registration is an unnecessary appendage to that authority.
D.C. voting rights: Well, I don't see the relation between full voting rights for our citizens and a commuter tax. I am opposed to a commuter tax. I think that Maryland has already ratified the Voting Rights Amendment for the District of Columbia, and had I been a member of the legislature, I would have favored it. Of course the United States Senate has already acted upon it too.
Federal employes: Well, I think that there is a distinction between workers who serve the federal government throughout their careers and invest 20 to 30 or 40 years in the federal government and the type of pension plan that they're entitled to for that service and the Social Security system. The Social Security system. The Social Security system applies to people in private industry no matter where they work, or how long they work. It does not take anywhere near the time for Social Security rights to vest. I think they should be maintained separately.
Medicaid funds for abortion: I think that all citizens are entitled to federal funds on an equal basis and I think that Medicaid funds are applied to abortion, that, I favor the availability of Medicaid funds for all citizens equally and I don't think that only the rich should be available to afford abortions. The Supreme Court had declared that it's a matter of choice and privacy and I would oppose efforts to try to limit the application of federal funds in the regard.
The Muskie nomination: I think it's a good nomination. Senator Muskie is an extremely able senator and a wise man with broad experience on Capitol Hill and in the field of foreign policy. He served six years on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and in his campaign for president of the United States, he became intimately familiar with the foreign policy and foreign policy process of the United States, and I think he'll make a fine secretary of state.
Military action against Iran: I think as long as the hostages are alive and their lives are not in imminent danger that we should pursue a diplomatic course using political and economic pressures in concert with our allies. I think that the lives of the hostages should be uppermost in our mind and any military action against Iran that was undertaken while they were still being held would unnecessarily jeopardize their lives.
Economic sanctions: I think those economic sanctions will work. But I think we have to understand that economic sanctions of that nature require perseverance and you can't expect immediate results. I think it's very important that we do these things in concert with our allies, in consulation with our allies, and in cooperation with our allies. The Soviet Union badly needs Western technology and Western food resources and they should understand that those things will not be available to them when they violate international law and international agreements and try to impose their will by force on other nations. House Candidates Phillip Buford
Wage and price controls: I do not support a plan of wage and price controls. I feel that we should have a system which is controlled by demand and supply with a free marketplace.
Olympic boycott: I definitely would support an Olympic boycott simply because I think we should do everything possible to defeat the expansionism or the prestige which the Russians would seek to gain by these games.
Draft registration and role of women: I feel that the first priority is to establish a viable foreign policy which will permit the government to make the proper decision when we face a menace abroad. The second priority should be to establish a draft. Registration is the third priority and should not be done at this time. I feel that women should help in the industrial side as they did in World War II and in the other administrative areas for the armed services and I feel this way because I feel that the aggressive part of the war can be more effectively done by the men.
D.C. voting rights: I believe that the representation of the District should be related back to the purpose for which the District was establish, which was to be the federal city for the United States of America. It has been a sacrosanct domain which is administered by Congress.
Our national government should have full control of its federal offices and establishment there for the protection of the entire country. I would oppose the D.C. amendment at this time.
I believe that it would do so (lead to a commuter tax). As a matter of fact, at the Annapolis legislature I believe that one of the leaders from the District had made the point at that very time that our legislature voted for it that he would like to see the commuter tax passed now. So I definitely feel it would come about.
Federal employes: In this case, I think that the federal workers are absolutely correct. I would oppose the merger of these two systems for several reasons. One, which is paramount, is to protect the benefits which the federal workers have already by their contributions and the contribution of the federal government. I would oppose it also on the basis that the two systems becoming one large system would inevitably become one large bureaucratic system under the government. Our Social Security system already has problems in size and overcoverage and I believe that these, all these problems would be compounded by the merger, so I would oppose it.
The Muskie nomination: I'm not close enough to know a precise political motivation, however, I'm sure that played a part as it usually does in such nominations. I would not have the nomination had I been involved in it because I feel that Muskie would tend to perpetuate the direction which we've gone in foreign policy, which is to withdraw our military bases from overseas and to diminish the military alliances which we need for security in the world, including our own national security.
Medicaid funds for abortion: I oppose those expenditures and I do so on several bases.
I oppose abortion, but I also oppose the use of federal funds in this area because it is a family matter and the intervention of the government inevitably leads to intervention in areas where I think it's not the proper province of government. Robin Ficker
Wage and price controls: I oppose wage and price controls as a way of dealing with inflation as these price and wage controls have proven they won't work. We've got to replace President Jimmy Carter with president Ronald Reagan to combat a 20 percent inflation rate, to cut that inflation rate in half and then in half again.
Ronald Reagan can do that and Jimmy Carter can't.
Olympic boycott: I strongly favor an Olympic boycott and took out ads proclaiming this fact two weeks before President Carter took his position in favor of an Olympic boycott. We have to oppose the armed Russian aggression into an innocent country. This is an effective way to do it. I don't think that being subject to the Russian propaganda machine will serve any purposes but theirs in Moscow.
Draft registration and the role of women in the military: I was a member of the West Point class of 1964 and I favor a strong national defense because I know that the massive build-up of Soviet arms along with the badly deteriorating state of American defense forces threatens us with grave consequences in the 1980s. I support draft registration now because it would take too long to mobilize in the event of a national emergency without it. I also less strongly support drafting women but would not force them into combat roles.
D.C. voting rights: I'm the only one in this particular primary who has voted against giving the District of Columbia the two U.S. senators that states have. I do not believe that cities, territories and other jurisdictions which are not states should have two U.S. senators.I believe that giving two U.S. senators to the District would lead to a commuter tax on Montgomery County residents. Mr. Steers in supporting two U.S. senators will bring about a commuter tax. m
Federal employes: Both of my parents are retired federal workers. My father worked for 40 years in the congressional research service of the Library of Congress, the last four years with former Congressman (Gilbert) Gude (R-Md.). My mother is a retired nurse and teacher in the federal government. I do not want to see the federal government's employes' nest egg impaired in any way. I think that what we need to bolster the Social Security system is to do away with the mandatory retirements that rob citizens of their productive years. I would not be in favor of financing Social Security through general revenues but instead it should be a self-contained system.
The Muskie nomination: Well, I believe that certainly President Carter had in mind that he'd have little trouble getting that nomination through the U.S. Senate in as much as Senator Muskie is a member of the club. I don't believe that Senator Muskie had a clear public record in foreign affairs. I do know that America's standing abroad is at an all-time low and that rather than saying that Senator Muskie is a cure-all, I believe we need an entirely new Republican administration headed by President Reagan and America's prestige will rise above the procrastination and lack of decisiveness that has marked the Carter administration, especially in the Iranian situation.
Federal Medicaid funds for abortions: I do not believe that our country can afford this expenditure.
This is another issue which shows typically that Mr. Barnes and Mr. Steers vote alike on all the issues and there really is very little to chose among these two big spenders and two liberal candidates. Constance A. Morella
Wage and price controls: I do not favor wage and price controls to deal with inflation. I think there are other ways of dealing with inflation: reducing government spending, reducing the rage to regulate, increasing productivity. I think all of these things, coming up with a comprehensive energy policy, are going to combat inflation.
If you control inflation, then you're automatically going to cut the budget because the cost-of-living adjustments have been tied to inflation. But I do not favor wage and price controls.
Olympic boycott: I think in view of the world situation, an Olympic boycott with the cooperation of our allies is quite appropriate.
Draft registration and role of women in the military: I do favor registration at this time. I think all Americans should be ready to stand up and be counted. I favor registration for young women as well as young men. I believe that the draft is not appropriate at this time and I think we might also think about considering implementation of a national youth plan with service options for active reserve, civilian duty for all young people and offering them, in some instances, a package of benefits to go along with it as an incentive.
As for the role of women, women in the voluntary services have been doing a very effective job. They found that their absentee record is even lower than with men, and they have stayed in the services longer. I think there are plenty of roles for women to serve in the forces, and I think they would be used to best advantage, just as there are for men.
D.C. voting rights: I do not believe that full voting representation for the District of Columbia is in any way connected with the commuter tax, which I violently oppose. I do believe that there should be voting representation for the District of Columbia. It is part (of) the Republican platform. I believe that it would lead to greater cooperation among the three jurisdictions, Northern Virginia, Montgomery County and the District of Columbia on those things that they have in common, such as Metro funding. I believe it is a better alternative than statehood, which I think is not a probability because of the enormous federal presence, and retrocession into Montgomery County in order to vote. I think it would give full-time legislators and it would get rid of some of the mismanagement that we've seen in the District of Columbia governing body.
Federal employes: I believe those people who are currently in the federal retirement system should not be subjected to a shift or a change in the system, that they should be given the benefits that they expected when they entered the system. That, to me, is full faith in the system, and I believe we owe it to them. In the future, if there is an integration of the benefits, it should be for only those new employes who are cognizant of this before they do enter federal employment. I don't believe we should change the benefits for those people who now have it. It's comparable to the state of Maryland where those people already in the retirement system experienced no change, but new people who came along were given the new plan, old people in the system were given the option of shifting to the new system if they so desired.
Medicaid funds for abortions: I favor the use of Medicaid funds for abortion in instances where the health, both physical and mental, of the mother is ascertained by physicians and by the woman to lead to long-range damage, such as we've done in the state of Maryland. To do otherwise, would be discriminatory. Judy Mann had a good article in your paper the other day on how the Hyde Amendment does not cover some of those other problems, tragedies that would be covered by the Medicaid funding. I have, as I've done on the state level, worked for counseling, which I really believe is the deterrent to abortion, and I am committed to doing that on a federal level also.
The Muskie nomination: I don't know whether it was politically motivated, although President Carter's moves all seem to be politically movitated, unfortunately. I will say it seems as though he likes to pick people who see eye to eye with him on his various philosophies. Muskie is certainly an experienced legislator. He's been around for a long time, but I do think his selection probably also has to do with the fact that Carter likes to surround himself with yes people and it may well have political overtones it if follows the pattern of what he has done in the past. Newton Steers
Wage and price controls: At this time I do not favor wage and price controls. One reason is that I think that unless we're actually in a period that the people recognize as a period of dire emergency, they won't obey wage and price controls.
Even to attempt to control them would require a new bureaucracy of 250,000 people . . . In World War II we had wage and price control, and I was overseas, but I know they worked fairly well. But even there it was a terrific struggle, many people spent a lot of time trying to get around them. So at this time I don't think they would work. I'm not saying that I'm opposed to them in principle.
Olympic boycott: I feel that the president's policy should be supported. To put it another way, even Carter isn't always wrong.
Draft registration and the role of women in the military: I favor registration of men and women. I feel that our military machine is in a sad state of repair and therefore I think the first thing we've got to do before we even think about actually drafting people is to get the military machine straightened out. As one example, we had maneuvers recently in central Europe and only 18 percent of the tanks were operational. Another example to me is the most shameful thing almost that I can recall about our military establishment, is to find that some of our enlisted personnel are not only receiving food stamps, they're entitled to receive them. pand of course the reason they're entitled to receive them is because they're so poorly paid. So I think that pending a draft, which I hope can be averted, I think that we have got to do a great deal to improve the status of the personnel, and we've got a great deal to do with respect to the equipment.
I think women already play a very significant role because there are so many military occupational specialties, where women are not merely as good as men, but they're better than men. The only place where I think that men have an edge is where physical strength is involved, and that's basically hand-to-hand combat, which is almost obsolete in modern warfare. So I would never require a woman to go into combat, but if women choose to, that's fine. But keep in mind that even in noncombat operations they're exposed to bodily injury just as much as they would be in the front line if there is a front line in the next war, which is debatable.
D.C. voting rights: I voted to give the various states the opportunity to vote on the matter, and I guess I'll leave it at that. I'm just reminded of the fact that there is no doubt whatsoever that such a (commuter) tax would have to pass both houses, and therefore I don't think it matters about the Senate. The question is the House, and many of those who are saying they are against the D.C. voting rights amendment, favor giving the House representation to D.C. I think that the D.C. commuter tax basically runs against the principle of no taxation without representation. Those who would impose a tax should be the ones who are forced to endure the tax, and that's what's wrong with the commuter tax. I think that it can be defeated in the House irrespective of what happens in the Senate, so I don't think it's a valid argument.
Federal employes: I do not favor going back on any of the current employes who took employment with the understanding they would not be under social security, nor do I think it's fair to those who are retired now. As far as future employes, that would be a new ballgame, and I would think that should be considered. But as far as what I think is the rock bottom group of current employes, we cannot, I don't think, go back on the condition of their employment -- mainly that they have their own retirement system, which they pay into heavily and only. I have pledged not to vote to reduce their benefits.
Medicaid funds for abortions: That's a very basic, really very serious question. I think of course, let me preface my answer by saying that I think that abortion is the most unhappy result, it's the most unhappy way to terminate a pregnancy. However, I think that we should of course abide by the present law which allows a woman to get an abortion if she has the means to do so. Therefore, I think it's discriminatory not to allow a woman who does not have the money to be forced to go without the abortion. So I do favor allowing the woman to make the choice whether she wants to carry the pregnancy to term.
The Muskie nomination: I think Ed Muskie is a fine man and under the circumstances, I think it was in the interests of the country to have Mr. Carter nominate somebody who wouldn't pose a long struggle in the Senate. I know Mr. Goldwater even says he oughtn't take 20 minutes to approve him, and I think it was politically inspired, but since he's a good man, I have no criticism.