Candidates for the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives were asked: 5th District, Democrats Vote for one Gladys Noon Spellman, 62, of 9004 Golden Press, Laurel, is serving her third term in the House of Representatives and is a former Prince George's County Council member who served as chairman of the Prince George's County Board of Commissioners. Inflation: Balancing the budget is one of many actions the government can take to fight inflation. It will restore confidence in government's ability to tackle the problem.We would have had a balanced budget in 1981 using the orderly budget process if we had not had enormous increases in oil prices imposed by OPEC, together with a shift in the balance of payments and a drop in the value of the dollar which followed. We need to eliminate duplicative services; reduce overregulation; provide incentives for reinvestment of capital to increase productivity; contain health care costs; bring order to our contracting-out process; eliminate fraud and waste in government programs; require work incentives in public assistance programs; reduce our reliance on imported oil. This fine-tuning of the delivery of services should not mean that jobs are sacrificed in the process. Energy: Reducing our dependency on foreign oil is essential on both economic and national security grounds. The greatest gains in reducing consumption can be made in the transportation sector, and in this context I am committed to developing strategies to cut gasoline consumption. A successful conservation effort will require the involvement of the private sector. Greater tax incentives for employer-based vanpool programs, excluding from the computation of an employe's gross income the cost of non-transferable mass transit passes provided by the employer, and passage of the administration's trucking deregulation bill would all help reduce consumption without adding another onerous layer of federal regulation. Stimulating gasohol production through extension of the federal motor fuel excise tax exemption to the year 2000 and providing tax incentives to stimulate capital investments in alcohol-for-fuel plants could further reduce gasoline use. Michael I. Sprague, 37, of 7214 Hanover Pkwy., Greenbelt, is a handicapper. (Mr. Sprague did not submit a photograph.) Inflation: Let the federal reserve do it. They make the money. Energy: Yes, car pool and buses, trains. 5th District, Republicans Vote for one William A. Albaugh, 57, of 3368 Chillum Rd., Mt. Rainier, is an inventor and investor. He ran unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for Congress in the 5th District in 1978 and ran statewide for Congress in 1962, 1964, 1974 and 1976. Inflation: No. I support John Kenneth Galbraith and Sen. Edward Kennedy's plan for across-the-board mandatory price-wage controls, with exemptions for small businesses adequately controlled by present market system. Galbraith says Carter is using a strong dose of standard monetary-fiscal anti-inflation medicine that produces a byproduct, unemployment, which is worse than the disease. A good humanist would not use unemployment to cure inflation. I would repeal minimum wage law which generates inflation by itself. Energy: Yes. I would adopt 100 percent gasoline tax on each individual (including non-registered aliens) and then automatically rebate the tax on 10 gallons per week by rebating $50 per person per month. (This is called semi-rationing and can easily be applied to other products which are overpriced.) George W. Benns, 69, of 8715 Leonard Dr., Silver Spring, is retired. Inflation: I challenge anyone President Carter selects, economist, banker, businessman, politician, computers (or all of them) to debate at a forum. My position will be that inflation can be stopped. My solution was written 10 years ago in my book, "Primer for a Peaceful Revolution." It also covers financing and building affordable housing, lowering taxes, creation of full employment, restructuring foreign policy, reducing crime, saving energy, funding Social Security for $240 billion, retiring the $800 billion federal debt to save $80 billions of debt service plus many other problems that plague us today. Energy: Inflation will not stopped unless we get rid of the power brokers who profit from inflation and do not want to kill their golden goose. The two biggest contributions to inflation are two unconstitutional bureaus created in 1913, the IRS and the Federal Reserve Board. In 1970, I advocated a crash program to develop solar energy, wind, water, less reliance on fossil fuels and no nuclear energy or bombs. My plan to save three million barrels of oil a day involves a strict ration plan plus placing the burden of transporting employes on the employers. They can devise a bus-rail network as a employes. For affordable housing, I will ask the unions for $30 billion of their pension funds and Congress to allocate $30 billion to build two million $35,000 houses yearly at 5 percent interest. William P. Guthrie, 26, of 3130 Laurel Ave., Cheverly, is a doctoral candidate and graduate assistant in the university of Maryland's department of government and poltics. Inflation: The federal budget must be balanced to halt inflation -- nothing else will work. At the same time, taxes must be reduced to relieve the middle class and revive the economy. Further, national defense requires more, not less money -- at the very least a 5 percent increase. This double program makes massive cuts in federal expenditures necessary. These cuts shall come from so-called "social welfare" and "domestic reform" programs, the HEW budget, and the like. Energy: Conservation, as preached by Carter and his ilk, is a hypocritical device for postponing any real action and disguising a declining standard of living. We may compare him to the captain of a sunken submarine, who orders his crew to hold their breath as long as possible. We must assure our energy self-sufficiency, not merely for four years, but for future generations. We must develop new sources of energy. Fission plants must be multiplied, solar-microwave satellites launched and fusion power perfected. Fusion power should supply most of our energy needs in the next century. Carter diverted 85 percent of the "windfall profits" tax money -- money meant for energy research and development -- to domestic spending. This crime must be undone. Kevin R. Igoe, 29, of 6247 67th Ct., Riverdale, is a public administrator and a former budget analyst with the United States Treasury. Inflation: Balancing the budget is significant, yet it is only one part of the effort to combat inflation. I believe that we should limit government spending to a percentage of the gross national product. This would necessitate cutting some items in the budget, specifically the portion of the revenue-sharing which goes to the states, foreign aid, space research and federal school lunch subsidies for children from families with incomes above $14,000. In addition, a concerted effort is needed to eliminate fraud and waste. Income tax brackets should be indexed to the rate of inflation so that individuals do not pay tax on inflation. This step will mean that cost of living increases will begin to show up in people's take home pay as well as in their gross check. Tax rates should be reduced by approximately 10 percent for each of three consecutive years to increase after tax reward and provide incentives to people who work, save and invest. Energy: Yes, we should make every effort to conserve on gasoline consumption. However, conservation is only a small part of solving our problem. We must continue research for alternative sources and try to develop our domestic oil supplies to the fullest extent possible through extensive research and exploration. Also, we must take steps to develop our abundant coal supplies in a cost efficient manner. We must begin to place greater emphasis on the development and production of all possible energy sources. 6th District, Democrats Vote for one Beverly B. Byron, 47, of 306 Grove Blvd., Frederick, is a member of Congress for Maryland's 6th District. Inflation: Balancing the budget is long overdue and is necessary in the effort to fight inflation. However, it is not the total solution to the inflation problem. I have therefore cosponsored several measures to address the underlying causes of inflation, such as insufficient savings and investment and an inability to increase productivity adequately. For example, I cosponsored the Capital Cost Recovery Act, which will provide a much greater incentive to U.S. industry to make the capital investments needed to improve productivity and compete in world markets. I have cosponsored legislation to provide a tax deduction for a certain amount of interest income from savings accounts and a similar provision has recently become law. These are just a few of the wide range of initiatives that must be taken to reduce inflation. Energy: It is essential to reduce our dependence on imported oil, and cutting gasoline consumption is one step to help achieve this goal. We must also promote conservation, expand the use of American coal and accelerate the development of synthetic fuels and alternate energy sources, such as solar. In order to reduce gasoline consumption, I voted to stimulate widespread gasohol use. I support further increasing the energy efficiency of automobiles, the government of electric cars and improved public transportation. Unless there is an unprecedented national emergency, I would oppose plans to conserve gas by forcing rationing or the proposed 50-cent per gallon tax. I support giving the governor of each state more discretion to tailor gasoline conservation plans to local conditions. Thomas H. Hattery, 26, of Mount Airy, is a farmer, a small businessman and an author. He has had staff experience in the Maryland General Assembly and U.S. Congress. Inflation: The heart of inflation is our sick economy. The major causes are: unfaborable balance of trade; lack of industrial innovation (1/2 rate of Japan); high interest rates; cost of energy; production curtailment while demand remains high. We must: encourage innovation to produce goods at competitive prices; revise patent laws to encourage innovation; force interest rates down to allow small industry and housing to survive, innovate and expand. A simplistic "balance the budget" program is a political ruse which will reduce inflation less than 1 percent. Some budget cuts can, and should, be made in selected areas, e.g.; duplicative programs; pork-barrel pet projects with limited national benefit; consolidation of U.S. military bases and military functions, with increased efficiency. Energy: Short-term and long-term measures are needed. Alcohol/gasohol is an especially promising renewable energy source available in the short-term. More efficient public transportation can be achieved through rejuvenation of railroads, subsidies to commuter bus services, construction of bicycle paths, etc. More than 50 percent of today's work force deals with information. With electronic advances in communication many employes could work at home or at decentralized locations, thus reducing commuter travel. In the longer term, I favor a more aggressive federal/industrial research and development program to bring alternative energy sources into production. For example, the electric automobile has tremendous potential for federal development support. Pushing the price of gasoline upward is an unconscionable and unfair approach to reducing consumption. John J. Kubricky did not respond to The Washington Post questionnaire. William B. McMahon, 50, of Williamsport, is a small businessman. Inflation: I believe that balancing the federal budget is only one of a series of measures available to Congress to halt inflation. Government spending is a source of inflationary pressure. Much of the spending is wasteful and I would seek to eliminate that immediately. Candidates for reduction are: foreign aid, research and development in areas other than defense and energy, welfare benefits to those physically able to work and federal park development and expansion involving the condemnation of people's land. I would also suggest changes in the tax and banking laws that would give more encouragement for the ordinary citizen to save more rather than spend more. Only if these measures couldn't be implemented in time to avert serious financial problems would I advocate wage, price, profit and interest controls, and then I would insist that these controls be fair and applied fairly. Simply put: 20 percent inflation and 20 percent interest rates are creating an emergency situation which may require emergency measures. Energy: Yes, I agree we should cut gasoline consumption or at the very least hold the line. However, there is a need for leadership by example by both the Congress and the Administration before individuals will conserve. Congressional junkets and bureaucratic travel for nonessential meetings would be prohibited. I do not favor conservation by taxation. Our long-term solution to gasoline conservation is in the development of more efficient vehicles, including electric cars. In addition, modern telecomunications technology can replace much of the need for business and government to travel. Melvin C. Perkins, 55, of the Centruy Hotel in Baltimore, is a retired steam ship captain. Inflation: I don't believe the budget will ever be balanced. Especially since we keep giving millions of dollars away to foreign countries. For instance, the Panama Canal. We gave them $137 billion to just give the canal away. I think Carter is on a "Give Away" program. I don't believe we'll ever be able to operate on a balanced budget. Energy: I think that's phony too. I think they are holding back to get a higher price. In Louisiana you can get all the gasoline you want. It's not realistic. Kent Sullivan, 36, of 10671 Scaggsville Rd., Laurel, is a former research associate, supervisor of field projects and congressional liaison with the National Institute of Education. Inflation: Balancing the federal budget is one of a number of ways to deal with inflation; others include passing legislation to make multi-national monopolies more responsive to the needs of American workers and consumers; adopting the metric system to make American products competitive on international markets; and restoring our system of free enterprise by reducing government controls and regulations. Wage and price controls should not be considered since they don't work, are impossible to enforce and are a primary cause of more inflation when removed. When a country has developed the capacity to kill everything that breathes and to destroy most everything that doesn't, I would say it has developed enough "strategic" nuclear firepower. No more money for that. I would be more selective about the countries receiving foreign assistance, limiting regular recipients to those who demonstrate friendship toward the United States. The national debt must be decreased, as 9 cents out of every tax dollar is too much to be paying in interest and the welfare system must be revamped, in cooperation with the private sector's on-the-job training programs. Energy: Absolutely. We are newly aware of our energy problems in this country and I am confident that the awareness itself will curtail our use of gasoline. And while high prices hurt most those of us who are least able to pay, they serve to further increase our awareness of a commodity we are fast running out of and they work very effectively to greatly reduce consumption. 6th District, Republicans Vote for one Clifford H. Andrews, 61, of 8422 Charlton Rd., Randallstown, is involved in sales. He ran unsuccessfully for the state Senate in 1966 and 1974 and for Baltimore County Council in 1970. Inflation: This is just one of the proposals that should be worked on, realizing that it might take several years to achieve a balanced budget. Except for national defense research and development of energy, all areas of government should be affected in accordance with their necessity or priority to the functioning of our nation. A "Buy American" campaign, telling the American public why they should buy American made products wherever possible. A "Sell American" campaign, to improve our export of our products around the world. Have ongoing seminars and open communications with union leaders, business management, banking executives and Congress to get mutual cooperation in competing with the rest of the industrial world. Redirect the philosophy of the general American worker to take pride in workmanship and giving their best effort to raise the production without raising the cost of production. Only in an emergency would I consider wage and price controls. Rebuilding our merchant marines so that American goods would be carried on American ships; this would serve two purposes -- increase jobs and help the economy and, in case of emergency, these ships cold be easily converted into other uses. Energy: It is necessary to cut gas consumption. Some of the areas: In the U.S. Mail Service in the urban areas in and around large cities. There are thousands of mail carriers that use small trucks every day that travel less than 60 to 80 miles a day. All of these could use trucks run by electricity. This would save millions of gallons a week. Also your small fire department cars and small trucks could be run on electricity. Most of them never go over 60 miles in a day. In the police department, the meter maids and other small local vehicles, many never go over 60 miles a day. There are many areas in government and private (sector) where a car never travels more than 60 miles a day. Promoting advertising campaigns to get more private citizens to use electric cars. Your two or three car family, the second or third car can be electric. The one car family, give a tax inducement to get a second car (electric) to use on local trips. Mass transit is good in some cities but is not the answer for everyone to use.
Raymond E. Beck, 41, of 1515 S. Pleasant Valley Rd., Westminister, is an attorney. He has been the Maryland House Minority Leader since 1978. He has served in the General Assembly for eight years and as House Minority Whip from 1975 to 1978. Inflation: Attempts to define specific cuts in the federal budget are a shell game. Government expenditures and priorities are out of control. Attempts to cut specific areas or established programs set off "special interest" lobbying which usually results in items being restored. The answers to the problem are not simple. A major realignment of the basic functions of government and the relationship between federal, state and local governments is necessary and overdue. Too many employes at all levels of government doing the same job are complicating rather than improving the system. Government is this nation's biggest "business," a business without regard to accountability, productivity or cost/benefit ratios. Federal government should be setting policy, providing oversight and audit functions. State personnel are already in place to administer federally funded programs. Billions can be saved by permitting states to administer the programs, reducing the federal role and federal workforce. In 1979, Maryland assumed the counties' cost of adminstering the food stamp program, thereby saving the counties millions. The program is still administered locally with the state providing oversight and review. We must increase defense spending. We are losing the military edge to Russia. Congress has been lulled to sleep by detente. The Russians have been sharpening their conventional and nuclear arsenal. Congress has failed to fund our military needs. Congress must act, not react.High priority must be given to national defense. A strong national defense was a crucial reason this union was formed in 1775 and is more important today. Energy: I agree and I believe most Americans agree that there is a need to conserve gasoline consumption. I further believe that Americans have been conserving gasoline and have gotten no credit for it. We are driving smaller and more fuel efficient cars. We are car pooling where possible. We are consolidating several trips into one and taking vacations close to home. Statistics show there is a significant decrease in gasoline gallon sales. The Maryland fixed gasoline tax is yielding fewer dollars as a direct result of decreasing gallon sales, therefore proving that conservation is in fact being practiced by Americans. How are Americans being rewarded by their voluntary conservation of gasoline? The president will levy a 10-cent per gallon tax on gas, which is this nation's fastest inflating consumer product. He is continuing his scheme of attempting to fight inflation with inflation while taxing us into further energy conservation. People are fed up with talk of conserving gasoline while they read documented reports of a glut of oil and gasoline sitting in tankers off our coast with no on shore tanks left for storage. New and slightly used gas guzzling luxury cars are a dime a dozen as we convert to more efficient cars. We need straight talk from the president, the regulators and the oil companies. Let's investigate and find out if there is a gas shortage or whether we are suffering from oil company retaliation for the so called "windfall profits tax" by failure to refine and release stores of gasoline to the American public. The truth, please! 8th District, Republicans Vote for one Phillip Buford, 54, of 5420 Burling Rd., Bethesda, is an engineer and physicist. He has also been a member of the Montgomery County Republican Central Committee. Infaltion; An effective way to reduce inflation is to reduce government spending and taxation. Spending should be reduced to a balanced budget level. I propose cuts as follows: reduce foreign aid, disestablish the department of education and energy and drastically reduce the Department of Human Resources. Many welfare and social service, jobs programs and programs of many department agencies should be left to local government at most, but predominantly to private business. Help people care for themselves and become independent of the government. Energy: It is desirable for all of us to save gasoline. It is misleading, however, to believe that our oil imports are predominantly affected by gasoline consumption since most of the refined oil products go into many other uses such as paint, plastics, chemicals, fertilizers, tars, and of course other fuels. President Carter's approach, I believe, is totally wrong in blaming the American public for the fuel industry's problems and mistakes in penalizing us with higher prices through import taxes and the windfall tax which is passed on to the consumer. Fuel efficient vehicles need development and alternative fuels need be used. I suggest all oil derived fuels go for vehicles. Coal for homes and some industry, coal and nuclear power. Robin Ficker, 37, of 7526 Glennon Dr., West Bethesda, is an attorney, engineer and legislator. He has been a member of the Maryland House of Delegates since 1978. Inflation: To cut 20 percent inflation in half and then in half again, replace Jimmy Carter with Ronald Reagan. We need leadership which commands greater confidence and respect. I will be a skinflint with the taxpayers' money and treat it as my own. Was the only one of 141 state legislators to offer any amendment cutting state budget, which had increased 11.66 percent, offering more than 20 amendments. Was first to challenge and have repeatedly challenged appropriations committee chairman over porkbarrel and wasteful spending. Will do same on federal level. We must learn to say "no" to whimsical uses of taxpayers' money. Stop government over-regulations.
Increased research and development will lead to technological advances and increased productivity per worker. Give income tax exemption to interest earned on individual savings accounts up to $10,000. The money saved can then be invested by, or loaned to private industry to improve plants, equipments and production. The best place to cut is non-productive welfare, especially welfare fraud. Energy: Yes, with emphasis on research and development, the average car should get 40 to 50 miles per gallon by 1995. We must keep the heat on American auto-makers to increase mileage.
Increase domestic production of gasohol and coal liquefaction-produced alternative fuels. Use mass transit.
Give tax incentives for solar, geothermal, oil-shale, magnetohydrodynamic, wind, water power and home insulation to free up domestic oil for gasoline. Promote nuclear energy with environmental safeguards. Constance A. Morella, 48, of 6601 Milwood rd., Bethesda, is a delegate in the Maryland General Assembly and a Montgomery College professor. She is former president of the Montgomery County Commission for Women. Inflation: Few people believe that balancing the federal budget will halt inflation. Inflation is far too pervasive for any single action or simple solution. To halt inflation we need a cooperative effort by private industry, the consumers and government. Private industry needs to modernize its production to utilize more efficient technologies as much as possible without additional borrowing at inflation-swollen interest rates. The consumer must limit credit purchases, buy American-made products and save when possible. The government's job is to encourage these private initiatives. For example, tax reform can stimulate corporate investment, stem credit purchases and spark consumer savings. Deregulation can cut unnecessary administrative costs and give management the needed flexibility to meet changing market demands. Government must also balance its own budget both as an example and test of self-discipline to control the wild growth of government. The budget will cut itself if inflation is halted because so many federal outlays are indexed to the cost of living. Energy: I don't favor government controls on automobile gasoline use at this time. What government must do is decontrol oil and natural gas pricing which will stimulate domestic production. Government should also provide incentives for carpools and other commuter energy-saving alternatives. Price decontrol will result in a market clearing at price at the pump. This will mean no gas lines; the high cost of gas will discourage unnecessary driving and conservation will result. If it becomes necessary, I favor use of the plan where each driver selects one day a week not to use his or her automobile. Newton Steers, 63, of 6601 River Rd., Bethesda, is a former U.S. congressman. He has served as a state senator and is chairman of the Maryland Advisory Committee of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. He is a financial advisor. Inflation: Balancing the federal budget is one indispensable prerequisite to halting inflation.
We must attack the root causes of inflation by reducing federal spending; reforming our tax system; increasing productivity and producing more energy in the United States. I favor substantially cutting back CETA and Targeted Fiscal Assistance. In Congress, I voted against porkbarrel public works, maritime and farm subsidies, especially for sugar farmers. I voted to reduce funds for Congress by 5 percent, for the Interior and Energy departments by 2 percent, and for Title 1 of the Foreign Aid Appropriation by 2 percent (excepting Israel, Egypt and Jordan), among others. These cuts will have to be larger because of the need to increase defense expenditures. Energy: Energy consumption must be cut; energy supply must be augmented; both will decrease our dangerous and inflationary dependence on overseas energy. Higher prices, more efficient automobiles and more use of pooling are all decreasing consumption.
To increase supply, we must make coal power clean, solar power economical and atomic power safe. Development of synthetics, fusion, geothermal, and tidal and wind power must all be intensified together with more efficient conversion, storage and delivery of energy.