Candidates for the U.S. Sentate and House of Representatives were asked: Inflation: Do you believe that balancing the federal budget is the best way to deal with inflation? If so, where would you make the cuts? It not, what else would you propse? Energy: President Carter and other leaders have said that it is essential to cut gasoline consumption.Do you agree? If so, what conservation measures do you favor? Democrats Vote for one Frank J. Broschart 37, of 5002 Silver Hill Rd., Suitland, is a teacher at Bishop McNamara High School and chairman of the department of history. He ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. House of Representatives in 1972 and the House of Delegates in 1978. Inflation: America, to resolve many of its difficult problems, must return to a sense of community. There is no question waste in our national government needs to be eradicated. We all must sacrifice so that spending remains within our means. Waste in welfare and in defense spending should be treated appropriately. Sunset legislation on programs no longer necessary should be applied. Energy: A national energy program is needed as one of the main agaendas for the 1980s. Jawboning the American public into conservation will not be effective.A further reduction of oil from the Middle East will mean emergency gas rationing. I propose that many employers whose workers can work out of their own homes encourage that practice. Solar energy should be encouraged and further research into its implementation countrywide should begin. Because of Three Mile Island, I believe nuclear energy should not be a foreclosed possibility but safeguards should be strictly adhered to. Edward T. Conroy, 51, of 12432 Shawmont La., Bowie, is an attorney and state senator. He was elected to the House of Delegates in 1962 and to the state Senate in 1966. He is chairman of the Constitution and Public Law Committee.
Inflation: I believe that balancing the federal budget is an important element in any program to deal with inflation. Balancing the budget is not a panacea for the ills of inflation, however, and a balanced budget must be accompanied by sound monetary policy and legislative measures to improve productivity, create new jobs, encourage investment and savings. I specifically endorse the Capital Cost Recovery Act which will help to make available new capital and encourage reproductivity which has been sponsored by some 280 House members and 48 senators. Programs in all areas will have to meet a more critical test in in terms of their merits and ratio of success in an environment of economic scarcity. I support increased defense spending but question the wisdom of the proposed MX missile system, which the GAO has estimated could cost as much as $60 billion. Other areas which should be trimmed include large water projects (the Senate Budget Committee actually increased this expenditure over the president's proposal) and Congress' own administrative and overhead costs. I also agree that a number of the areas proposed by the president for reduction or deferral of spending are appropriate, including $300 million for export-import loans, $800 million from delaying strategic petroleum reserve purchases, $600 million in deferral of new energy projects. Energy: Agree that we must decrease our dependence on imported petroleum products and gasoline through conservation and development of alternative energy sources. When Congress enacted the Emergency Energy Policy Act of 1979, it required the administration to come up with conservation measures which could be imposed on states during a serious shortage if the states did not meet voluntary conservation objectives.State gasoline consumption targets were announced last December by Energy Secretary Duncan. Most state officials have indicated that they expect to meet the voluntary targets without mandatory changes in gasoline use. Both federal and state officials are continuing to work on conservation plans in case mandatory targets beocme necessary. On Feb. 4, 1980, DOE released for comment nine proposed conservation measures as possible options if the president decides there is a serious energy shortage. DOE held hearings on these proposals last month and is accepting written comments through the month. I particularly favor mass transit alternatives such as Metro, the Balitmore subway, buses, van and car pools and commuter rail. I also think proposals for a four-day work week, a ban on driving on certain days, odd-even sales, minimum gasoline purchases and strict enforcement of 55 mph speed limit are workable conservation measures if stringent mandatory controls become necessary. Mello Cottone, 47, of 1024 Stirling Rd., Silver Spring, is an attorney and legislative consultant. He has been active in state and national Demcratic campaigns. Inflation: To eliminate inflation, you must eliminate inflationary federal expenditures and other federal laws with inflationary effects. Whether that results in a balanced budget is irrelevant, and, in fact, inflation does not run in tandem with the size of the federal deficit.However marshalling all federal power cannot bring about equitable treatment, and marshalling only parts of this power, with actions short of a wage-price freeze, merely focuses the impact of federal efforts on a smaller group, increasing their unfairness. We must first interrupt the inflationary psychology by making it clear that those who bet on inflation through commitments to pay high interst rates will not be rewarded and by reexamining the automatic indexing of major federal programs. However, we must maintain adequate protection for those such as the aged who are dependent on Social Security, who require asistance to supply basic needs. Energy: I agree we must cut gasoline consumption. Automobiles are by far the principal cause of our dependence on foreign oil. Last year an estimated 42 percent of American oil imports were refined into gasoline. I advocate and will vote for programs to promote pooling, increased use of efficient cars and mass transportation, production of synthetic fuels and restricting traffic in some downtown areas. I favor establishing a date certain for development of an electric town car. If necessary, I would favor rationing as a last resort, using a white market in coupons. I do not aprove of artificial price increases which hurt middle and low income consumers who have no alternative to present gas consumption patterns. Victor L. Crawford 48, of 9417 Colesville Rd., Silver Spring, is an attorney. He has been a Maryland state senator from 1969 to present. He has been chairman of the Montgomery County Senate Delegation and a former member of the Maryland House of Delegates. Inflation: The days of prosperity by deficit are over. I favor a congressionally balanced budget combined with other demand restraining initiatives. It is not the best or only way to deal with inflation. Initially, I would eliminate $33 billion for the new MX missile and cut $2.1 billion for a nuclear carrier. The emphasis should be on rapid deployment forces; recruiting and reenlisting experienced technicians and soldiers. We must increase productivity and competitive pricing through deregulation; primarily financial institutions and transportation. We need "economic impact" statements that weigh the benefits of agency regulations against the costs; faster depreciation write-offs; tax credits providing investment incentives; increased energy alternative research and methods to retool and modernize our industries. We must substantially reduce our foreign oil imports. Mandatory price and wage controls are necessary for a limited period to break the existing inflationary psychology and spiral. We must modify economic distortions by eliminating housing and energy costs from the Consumer Price Index. We cannot afford the Federal Reserve's policy of high interest rates that can serve only to take people off the assembly lines and put them on the welfare lines. Energy: Yes. We need increased mass transit and elimination of nonprofitable transportation routes; increased penalties for a manufacturer's failure to meet fuel efficiency standards; industry retooling for smaller cars; more manual transmissions; standby rationing for emergencies; utility rate reforms that encourage conservation, not use; continued gasohol exemption from 4-cent federal excise tax; increased solar, coal conservation, hydroelectric, synfuel, fusion and cogeneration development. Robert L. Douglass, 51, of 1427 N. Ellwood Ave., Baltimore, has served in the State Senate since 1975. An engineer and business executive, he was a member of the Baltimore City Council 1967-1974. (Sen. Douglass did not respond to The Post survey). John Alvah Kennedy, 50, of 412 Trimble Rd., Joppa, is a safety engineer, purchasing agent and administrator for Grumman Aerospace Corp. Inflation: Yes. Reductions should be made to eliminate some layers of bureaucracy by not filling retirements, resignations and others; service real needs and bypass the druthers. Energy: Yes. However, voluntary reduction is hard to achieve. Therefore, we should alter the consuming units by redesigning (by the auto manufacturers) the vehicles already in use by the American public; generate factory staffed and operated retrofit facilities throughout the nation (thereby redirecting the unemployed auto industry people); set a reasonable deadline for completion of the changeover and control it by motor vehicle license suspension and service station inspection. Dennis C. McCoy, 38, of 2241 E. Lake Ave., Baltimore, is an attorney. He is a member of the House of Delgates, chairman of the Joint Legislative Committee on the Ports of Maryland and chairman of the Baltimore City delegation. Inflation: There is no simple answer to inflation.
Steps that must be taken are:
1. Since approximately 50 percent of the current inflation is due to energy cost increases, we must accelerate coal utilization as a fuel and for gasification, increase incentives for the conversion to solar and other renewable energy resources, accelerate transportation system changes to increase reliance on mass transportation, accelerate incentives for research and development.
2. Capital formation constraints and the resulting reduced productivity further aggravate the problem. We must change our tax system to exempt interest on individual savings from taxation and permit more rapid depreciation of capital assets.
3. Demographic changes have reduced our domestic market. We must produce for a world market and become more of a "trading nation."
4. The most significant long-term cure for inflation is increased productivity through increased research and development and capital investment. I support necessary changes and direct expenditures and tax incentives to stimulate such increases.
5. Accumulated budget deficits aggravate inflation. We must establish a national priority for a balanced budget and deviate only in times of serious economic slowdown. Energy: Petroleum products cannot be relied upon as the major energy source for transportation. Currently 25 percent of our energy consumption is for transportation. We must increase reliance upon clean, safe and dependable mass transit, provide stand-by authority for gasoline rationing, increase research and development in areas of alternative transportation energy source and the application of new and existing technologies in transportation and press forward with mandated auto efficiency standards. R. Spencer Oliver, 42, of 5007 Smallwood Dr., Bethesda, was staff director and general counsel to Congressional Commission on the Helsinki Accords. He was national president of Young Democrats and a delegate to the 1974 Democratic Convention. Inflation: Balancing the budget as a means of reducing inflation is more symbolic than real. The cuts so far proposed will create hardship and have little if any effect on inflation. In my opinion, the two major causes of inflation are energy (oil) costs and high interest rates, both of which can be controlled. We produce 10 million of the 18 million barrels of oil a day we use. Domestic prices should not be decontrolled until foreign prices can be brought down. Increased prices are not necessary to increase production. The record shows that major oil companies, which get most of the increase, do only 10 percent of the drilling for new oil. Furthermore, the oil companies 10K reports to the SEC show that it only costs $1.50 a barrel at the well to produce oil for which they get about $8 to $9 a barrel. Why higher prices? High interest rates have not reduced borrowing for speculation. What they are doing is driving farmers and small businessmen to bankruptcy. Farmers have always borrowed in the spring for planting -- they can't do that at 18 percent interest rates. Businessmen -- automobile dealers, appliance dealers, furniture dealers, boat and motor dealers and many more -- floor-plan inventory for sale through banks. They cannot survive at 18 to 20 percent floor-planning interest rates. Energy: Reduction of gasoline consumption is desibrable and mismanagement of our oil supply makes it essential. It is wrong to assume that most of our gasoline is used in pleasure and nonessential driving. Our economy is geared to the truck and automobile more than any in the world. One of the most sensible ways to reduce gasoline consumption fairly and without improperly affecting its essential use is by rationing. Claiming that we can't make rationing work is like saying that our democratic government can't govern. David E. Shaw, 47, of 2015 Old Liberty Rd., Westminster, is a farmer and real estate developer. He is the past president of the Carroll County Farm Bureau and, for eight years, was its legislative chairman. Inflation: I believe balancing the federal budget is a good policy, although that alone will not control inflation. High energy prices and high interest rates are business expenses which have to be covered by higher prices and also cause paychecks to shrink. Energy prices may take a little time -- the fed's high interest and short money policy can be changed more quickly. Energy: We should not ever be wasteful. We should promote gasahol and alternate sources of energy for transportation -- more battery and generator power and better carburation for existing cars. For business and industry, use coal instead of oil where possible. Kurt Summers, 46, of 10201 Grosvenor Pl., Rockville, is a senior analyst. He has been a member of the Junior Chamber of Commerce, the AFL-CIO and the National Association of Home Builders. Inflation: We must reduce inflation to the healthy rate of 2 to 2 1/2 percent per year, because taxes, regulations and interest are approximately 75 percent of our GNP. Balancing the budget is only one action which must be accomplished. Reduce budgets for Health and Welfare, Transportation, Energy, Interior, Agriculture, Labor, Treasury, Housing and Urban and Commerce departments. Increase budgets for Justice, Education, Defense and State departments.Reduce prime lending rate to 5 percent. Produce hybrid commuter vehicle. Eliminate vast number of unnecessary regulations. Enter into fair trade agreements which protect U.S. workers and business. Wages and prices tied directly to productivity. Require yearly renewable contracts for government employes after 20 years' service. Provide services and work-fare for welfare recipients, not money. Reduce individual taxes 34 percent over a four-year period. Provide tax credits and incentives to business. Encourage industrial base turn-over every 10 years via capitalization depreciation. Energy: The solution is reduced gasoline consumption. Fifty-five percent of all crude oil used in our country goes to the production of gasoline. The only viable and realistic method is to encourage production of a hybrid commuter vehicle operated by battery with a small one-cylinder gasoline engine which would charge the battery. Eighty-five percent of all gasoline produced is consumed by autos and 83 percent of all driving is local commuting. The hybrid vehicle would average 135 miles per gallon, which would reduce our crude oil needs by 40 percent and could be produced for less than $5,000. Industry could convert production to this vehicle in six months. Richard J. Taranto, 47, of 2600 Claret Dr., Fallston, is director of staff relations for Harford County Public Schools. He was a teacher and personnel specialist at Baltimore County schools. Inflation: To bring inflation under control, I propose an effective wage-price freeze. It serves no purpose to have people believe they will receive a 5 or 10 percent increase and then take it all back and more with 20 percent inflation.
The budget should be balanced. Cuts should be made to eliminate waste and excesses in all areas. Tax loopholes should be closed. Priorities should be examined and to the extent feasible the sacrifice should be shared. Oil profits which are artificially high and a prime caused of inflation should be taxed accordingly. These taxes should be used to reduce other taxes and develop alternative sources of energy. Energy: Gasoline is a major part of the engery problem which has punished our people for the past seven years. Our people are making significant sacrifices to conserve. They need help. We must develop alterntive sources of energy and use present sources more efficently. We should concentrate our efforts in areas where the technology exists now. This would minimize costs, stimulate our industries, provide jobs for our people and break the oil monopoly.Coal is producing electricity now; gasohol can be produced from surplus grain; nuclear plants with safety standards should be licensed; the use of solar energy should be expanded; automobile engines can be built to get more gas mileage, and rapid transit systems would reduce our dependence on oil and automobiles. In summary, we have the people, we have the resources, we have the technology. iWith effective leadership can solve our problems. James A. Young did not respond to The Washington Post Survey. REPUBLICANS Vote for one Roscoe G. Bartlett Jr., 53, of 4317 Buckeystown Pike, Frederick, is an educator, scientist, businessman and farmer. Inflation: Yes. Certainly not in defense, but many departments and regulatory agencies could and should be drastically reduced in size or eliminated altogether. Every function of government should be moved to the lowest feasible level with higher levels of government having little or no associated activity. There would be no unemployment produced by such actions. The capital represented by the reduced taxes would remain in the private sector and should create more jobs than those eliminated by the government. Energy: Yes. By tax incentives or by law, automobiles should be made much smaller and get very much better gas mileage. By education of the American public so that they understand the real urgency. By expanded use of mass transit. By development of special commuter buses. By tax incentive discouragement of single car-driving and encouragement of car pooling. John M. Brennan, 40; of 2432-A Cedar Ave., Annapolis, is a real estate attorney. He has no previous experience in public office. Inflation: Balancing the federal budget will help "cool" inflationary, but a budget will not along solve the problem. A reduced budget achieved by eliminating waste, controlling government growth and eliminating nonessential government services will help control inflation. We must also reduce government overregulation of business to promote productivity and provide tax incentives for capital investment such as accelerated depreciation for new equipment, autos and buildings. The current Kemp-Roth proposals provide tax reduction to individuals and corporations along with reduced government spending and are the kind of medicine this economy needs. Energy: Although conservation is essential in the face of energy shortages, this misplaces the emphasis and dwells on the negative. To complement our efforts to conserve, we must offer the hope of energy independence which can be achieved through promoting alternate sources of energy such as "coal-gas." We must apply a larger share of the already passed "windfall profits tax" to synthetic fuels research and to encourage new businesses to enter the synthetic fuels field. Jack Fortune Holden, 54, of 3221 28th Pkwy., Temple Hills, is a law enforcement administrator. He served as an adviser to Sen. William F. Knowland when he was Senate Majority Leader. Inflation: I say that our real enemy is recession and lack of economic growth. Both inflation and recession can be countered by growth -- especially in the areas of factory, agricultural and mining productivity. And we must buy American. Energy: No. I believe increasing oil productivity in America is more important. And we should stop selling our oil to any foreign nation. Charles McC. Mathias Jr., 57 of Frederick, is the incumbent. He has served in the U.S Senate for two terms and was in the House of Representatives for four terms. He has served as state delegate and assistant attorney general of Maryland. Inflation: A balanced budget is not the only way to fight inflation and is not a total answer, but it is the best place to start. Inflation is a complex problem and we must focus on each contributing factor -- deficit spending, increased oil prices, easy credit, lagging productivity and the scarcity of venture capital -- if we are to have an effective program. Inflation can and will be controlled if we attack it from all sides, beginning with a permanently balanced budget. As for where we should cut spending, I have long thought that we should simply set a federal spending limit and then battle it out in Congress as to who gets what. Under these ground rules, I can't predict exactly where the cuts would come. For the past two Congresses, I have proposed "Sunset" legislation, which would require a review of government programs and agencies to evaluate their cost-effectiveness before they could receive continued funding. In this way, we could cut back or eliminate programs that are ineffective and inefficient. At the same time, we ought not to be penny-wise and pound-foolish. Those programs such as education, health research and critical technological research and development, where the federal investment results in an ultimate savings to society, should continue to be supported. We must also fight for funds for a strong defense of our nation's vital interests, and urge our allies to share more of our common defense burden. Other have prospered behind our security shield, and should be encouraged to pay their fair share. Energy: The United States is spending almost $1.5 billion a week for imported oil; 90 percent of that is burned as gasoline. Thus, without strong efforts to conserve gasoline, we can all but forget about making a dent in our dangerous denpendence on foreign sources of oil. I am wary, however, of conservation measures imposed other than by the marketplace. High tax rates on gasoline, forced rationing and the like are inequitable in that they force us to make choices between the various gasoline users in this country. This does not mean, however, that we should not have contingency plans for these measures, to be used in the event of an emergency. Recent events in the Persian Gulf area underscore the need for such preparation. The key to encouraging gasoline conservation is not to price a good portion of our citizens out of the market with taxes, or to adopt unfair rationing systems. The key is to push for more efficient modes of transportation -- for gas-efficient American-made cars, for expanded mass transportation systems like Metro in the Washington area. The key is to convince the American people that our energy consumption has reached crisis proportions and we can no longer afford to continue at this pace. By doing this, we will be taking the first crucial step toward energy independence, which is so necessary for the survival of this country. V. Dallas Menrell, 44, of 13917 Crest Hill La., Silver Spring, is a business consultant. He has been an adviser, to federal officials and several Fortune 500 companies and has helped set up minority management programs. Inflation: We're seeing an epidemic of deathbed repentence among politicians who now support the balanced budget. But we need institutionalized constraints on government spending. I feel that the balanced budget amendment should be thoroughly debated in the U.S. Congress in order to avoid last-minute and erratic support for fiscal sanity. At the present time the budget should not be balanced through increased taxes such as has been done through the windfall profits tax. Balancing will come from two resources: budget cuts and through healthy and growing economy that will produce increased tax revenues. Cuts should come from trimming bureaucratic overhead; known unproductive and unworkable programs. For instance, Medicare is provided for citizens over age 65, regardless of need. And vast sums could be saved along with providing better care for the needy rather than for the needs of certain age category. CETA funds have not always been productive where last-minute spending is required and too few real jobs are produced for the poor. Food Stamps are intended to stave off starving. It has now become for many a lower middle class subsidy that is unnecessary. The anti-business bias carried by Mathias and his Democratic colleagues must be eliminated. We must stop the practice of penalizing success and subsidizing failure. Engery: It is imperative that we reduce our dependence on foreign oil. America has shown its willingness to conserve. Further encouragement for reduced gasoline consumption should be given. But even more important than conservation is the necessity to allow genuine competition in the marketplace and our free market system to operate so as to produce increased domestic supplies. Energy sources are abundant in this country. But we need to develop and use them. Hydroelectric power is not completely utilized. Development of solar energy needs to be accelerated. Innovative bimass sources must be considered for immediate utilization. Geothermal represents another source. A number of these sources represent, at least at the present, minor contributions to the total energy needs, but yet should be pursued in order to provide relief from the OPEC stranglehold. Architectural and engineering design measures should be considered to maxinize conservation through better architectural and engineering design. Builders should be given tax incentives for conservation. The greatest contribution to the energy problem, however, is by reducing federal regulations that stifle domestic production, get rid of the regulations that favor the large oil producers, and allow for the marketplace to operate and bring the oil supplies needed. Gerald G. Warren, 39, of 1445 Jordan Ave., Crofton, is an attorney. This is his first bid for political office. He previously served as assistant county attorney for Montgomery County from 1973 to 1976. Inflation: A balanced federal budget is a necessary first step in arresting runaway inflation. A balanced budget is useless if it is based on increasing levels of federal taxation. The federal budget must be balanced on the predicate of reduced federal spending and less federal revenue. bFor example, Congress should enact the Kemp-Roth tax reduction proposal and thus generate capital investment by the private sector. Kemp-Roth is especially appropriate at this juncture because all economic data indicate a deep and prolonged recession. Some elements of the economy, i.e., housing and automobiles, are in a depression. Energy: I agree gasoline consumption must be curtailed. Mandatory mileage should be imposed on the Detroit auto makers of no less than 50 miles per gallon by 1985. The answer to the gasoline crisis rests only partially with the auto makers and the American motorist. The United States should be the leader among the consuming nations in creating OPIC, Organization of Petroleum Importing Countries. This consortium would negotiate the world price of crude on behalf of the oil importing countries. OPEC would not be able to bid up crude prices unilaterally but instead would have to bargain with OPIC on a mutuality of interest basis. Recently, the government of Japan refused to permit its oil companies to accede to the price increases demanded by Iran. This same strategy is available for all consuming nations and I think the Western world is amenable to establishing OPIC.