Martha F. Blackburn, 52, a resident of the Washington area since 1950 who also had lived in Europe, the Middle East and the Phillipines, died of cancer Monday at her home in Vienna.

From 1974 until earlier this year, Mrs. Blackburn had spent much of her time in Amman, Jordan, where her husband, Bruce B. Blackburn Jr., a retired lieutenant colonel in the Army and a former State Department employe was communications advisor to King Hussein.

Mrs. Blackburn also had accompanied her husband on military and diplomatic assignments to Iran, Cyprus, Germany, the Phillipines and Britain. The couple had maintained a home here since 1950 and also had a house in St. Petersburg, Fla.

A native of Athens, Ga., Mrs. Blackburn attended schools there and also had taken extension courses at the University of Maryland and attended universities in Germany and England.

Mrs. Blackburn was a member of the Westwood Country Club in Vienna, the Momumental Brass Society in England, the St. Petersburg (Fla.) Acht Yacht Club and the Royal Jordanian Radio Society in Amman.

In addition to her husband, of Vienna, survivors include two children, Linda and Bruce III, also of Vienna, and four sisters, Belva Fowler, Ruth Bolton, Chistine Cash and Doris Logan, all of Athens.