Martha Bauer, 87, a former dentist who was an active member of the Friends Meeting of Washington, died of pneumonia Wednesday at Montgomery General Hospital in Olney. She had a heart ailment.

Born and reared in Frankfurt, Germany, Dr. Bauer became one of the first women dentists in that country. She received her medical education in the German cities of Heidelberg, Wurzburg and Frankfurt and was a dentist in Frankfurt until 1936.

She and her husband of 54 years, Dr. Hugo Bauer, a National Institutes of Health biochemist who had worked with Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich in Germany, then fled the country and the Hitler regime with their three children. They settled in Washington. Her husband died in 1968.

After moving here, Dr. Bauer gave up her dental practice to devote her time to her family.

She lived in Washington until last year, when she moved to the Friends Retirement Home in Sandy Spring, Md.

Besides her membership in the Society of Friends Washington Meeting, where she served on the library and several other committees, Dr. Bauer had a general interest in religion and in literature and opera.

Survivors include two daughters, Hildegard Kramer of Kensington, and Doris Derrickson of Huntsville, Ala.; a son, Hans, of Paramus, N.J.; seven grandchildren, and 10 great-grandchildren.

The family suggests that expressions of sympathy be in the form of contributions to the American Heart Association.