Charles Thomas Sweeney, 84, a former government official who taught at the University of Maryland for 18 years before retiring as a professor in its school of business administration in 1966, died of cancer Monday at Prince George's General Hospital.

Mr. Sweeney came to the Washington area in 1940 as chief of the metal accounting branch of the Office of Price Administration. He also taught accounting at Catholic University in the early 1940s.

He joined the faculty at the University of Maryland in 1948, worked briefly for the Office of Price Stabilization, and then returned to Maryland in 1952. He lived in Bowie.

Mr. Sweeney was born in New York State, graduated from Cornell University and earned a master's degree in business administration from the University of Michigan. He served in the Army during World War I.He taught at Iowa State and Antioch College in Ohio and had his own accounting firm in Springfield, Ohio, before he moved to Washington.

Mr. Sweeney was a member of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the American Accounting Association.

Survivors include his wife, the former Verna Reed, of Bowie; two daughters, Ann S. Schrenk of Minneapolis, and Mary S. Jansson of Maitland, Fla.; two sisters, Sister M. Philomena and Sister M. Giovanna, both of Allegheny, N.Y., and six grandchildren.

The family suggests that expressions of sympathy be in the form of contributions to the Ostomy Association of Prince George's County in College Park, or to the American Cancer Society.