Eleventh graders throughout Maryland, who will make up the graduating class of 1982, are the first students who must pass the Maryland Functional Reading Test to qualify for a diploma. All but 193 eleventh grade students in Montgomery County have fulfilled the requirement, according to results from the October tests, released recently by school officials.

The test is given every year to students in grades 9 through 12 and as a trial run for seventh graders. Students who pass the test as ninth graders do not take it again. Last year's exam, however, was invalidated by the state superintendent of schools because of defective questions, which he said unfairly penalized students. The 128-item exam has no time limit, but usually two class periods are allowed for completion. A passing score is 80 percent correct answers.

Students who have not yet passed the exam will take it again in May.

Starting in the fall of 1982, a math competency test will be added, and it will later become a graduation requirement.

In Montgomery County schools, 92 percent of 7,845 ninth graders, 95 percent of 8,222 tenth graders and 89 percent of 1,758 eleventh graders passed the test given last October.