D.C. Mayor Marion Barry yesterday submitted to Congress his 1981 package of legislative priorities. It consisted of items of home rule legislation that matched in most instances proposals that Barry and other home rule supporters have been advocating for the last six years.

The proposals seek transfer of prosecutorial authority to a District of Columbia Attorney; elimination of the 30-day period required for Congress to review all local laws; devising of a formula to determine the amount of the annual federal payment that is made to the city to compensate for loss of tax revenues from federal and diplomatic properties here, and streamlining the cumbersome city budget process that requires both congressional and presidential approval.

One of the few new proposals would authorize issuance of general obligation bonds to provide $184 million to ease a worsening budget deficit. The plan requires congressional approval, which is considered more likely this year because it has the support of Sen. Charles McC. Mathias, chairman of the subcommittee on governmental efficiency and the District of Columbia.

On the other hand, prospects for any of the other home rule measures appear unchanged. The Reagan administration has not taken a position on most of the city requests. And for the first time in a quarter century, Republicans control the White House and the Senate simultaneously in a city that is over-whelmingly Democratic.

City officials have notes that expansion of home rule powers is consistent with the philosophy of Republicans and conservatives to "get the government off our backs."