Thomas M. Prather, 58, a retired management analyst who worked on budgets and financial matters with the old Atomic Energy Commission and other government agencies, died of cancer Thursday at the Washington Adventist Hospital in Takoma Park.

Mr. Prather, who lived in Olney, was born and reared in Salisbury, Mo. In 1941, he moved to Washington and went to work at the Department of Agriculture. Later in World War II, he went into the Army and was stationed in England.

He returned here in 1946 and went back to Agriculture. In 1951, he transferred to the Department of the Army. Over the years, he attended night classes at Columbus University and earned bachelor's and master's degrees in accounting.

In 1960, Mr. Prather went to work for the ABC, from which he retired in 1977.

Survivors include his wife, Juanita, of Olney; a son, Martin, of Ketchikan, Alaska; a daughter, Carrie Prather-Garves of Silver Spring, and a sister, Lorene Nahas of Waldorf, Md.

The family suggests that expressions of sympathy be in the form of contributions to the Oakdale Emory United Methodist Church in Olney, of which Mr. Prather was a member, or to the American Cancer Society.