Virginia Gov.-elect Charles S. Robb, who takes office in 10 days, named seven persons to his personal staff yesterday. Most are longtime advisers and aides who reflect the broad-based coalition of Democrats and conservative independents who helped Robb become the first Democrat elected governor since 1965.

The key appointee is David McCloud, 37, who will serve as Robb's senior executive assistant. McCloud has been the governor-elect's top aide since 1979, first in the lieutenant governor's office and most recently as transition director.

A former top official of the state Department of Personnel and Training, McCloud is considered Robb's most knowledgable source of information on the inner workings of the state bureaucracy. McCloud, who did not serve on Robb's campaign staff, is a nominal Democrat.

George Stoddart, 32, a former reporter for The Winchester Star who served as Robb's campaign press spokesman, will serve the same role in the new administration.

Robb also named H. Benson Dendy III, 25, as special assistant for constituent affairs to help tend the needs of Robb's political supporters and of Democrats in the General Assembly. Dendy, a conservative party activist, has been Robb's top political aide since Robb got involved in statewide politics in 1976.

Other appointees include Judith Johnson, 34, a black woman who was senior counsel to the state housing authority, as cabinet assistant; Timothy Sullivan, 37, an associate dean at The College of William and Mary's law school, as executive assistant for planning and policy, and Stewart Gamage, 31, a Democrat and longtime Robb adviser, as director of the state's Washington office. University of Virginia law professor A.E. Dick Howard, 48, will serve without pay as counselor to the governor.

Salaries for the Robb staff were not announced, but Stoddard said the pay would be below the levels paid similiar workers in the administration of Gov. John N. Dalton.