The Justice Department announced yesterday that President Reagan has fired James O. Golden, the U.S. marshal for the District of Columbia, after just two weeks on the job, apparently as a result of a series of sharp management disputes between Golden and his superiors.

In a harshly worded statement, the department said Attorney General William French Smith recommended Golden's dismissal because he "failed to comply with departmental instructions and policies."

In the same statement, Associate Attorney General Rudolph W. Giuliani said that after Golden took office on Aug. 2, he did not meet the "highest professional standards" demanded of U.S. marshals, who provide security for judges and witnesses in federal courts, guard prisoners and pursue fugitives.

Reagan signed the papers dismissing Golden Monday night, after efforts to persuade the new marshal to retire or resign proved unsuccessful, sources said.

Golden vigorously disagreed with the department's version of the events that led to his ouster. "I have absolutely followed orders and I have done absolutely nothing wrong and I really don't understand the reasons for all these actions because they are manufactured," he said in a telephone interview.

"I prefer to be fired rather than resign or retire and look like I've done something wrong," Golden said.

Following Golden's dismissal yesterday, the judges of the U.S. District Court appointed Anthony J. Furka, a chief deputy in the Washington office, to be U.S. marshal until Reagan fills the job.

Golden's abrupt departure has caused an uproar among the 114 deputies at the local U.S. marshal's office, where he had gained popularity after a short time on the job.

"The men think he was railroaded," said Thomas Tague, president of the Fraternal Order of Police, whose membership includes deputy marshals.

Eighty-two deputies signed a petition yesterday saying, according to deputy marshal Andrew Orenge, that Golden's appointment had generated harmony in the office that had not been matched for 10 years and that he had "brought dignity and hope to all personnel under his command."

The petition, hand-delivered to the White House, asked Reagan to order an independent investigation "into the truth of those malicious and false allegations" that the deputies said resulted in Golden's dismissal.

Washington is the only district in the country in which U.S. deputy marshals work in the local court system.

According to deputy marshal Andrew Orenge, the petition said that Golden's appointment had generated "harmony" in the office that had not been matched for 10 years and that he had "brought dignity and hope to all personnel under his command."

"The men think he was railroaded," said Thomas Tague, president of the Fraternal Order of Police, whose membership includes deputy marshals.

Justice Department sources said yesterday that Golden's "unwise and amateurish" demands about the independence of the Washington office had rankled administration officials and caused them to lose confidence in his ability to run the office.

Golden, 57, had been director of the enforcement criminal conspiracies division at the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration before he was nominated to be marshal on June 29. A Marine Corps veteran, he has an extensive background as an investigator, including six years as a special agent with the U.S. Secret Service and a year as vice president of the Hughes Tool Co. in Las Vegas, where he was in charge of security and personnel.

According to sources, Justice Department officials first became upset with Golden when it appeared to them that he would disrupt six months of "delicate negotiations" between the department and the D.C. Superior Court about removing deputy marshals from duty in the courthouse cellblock.

Washington is the only district in the country in which U.S. deputy marshals work in the local court system.

Golden said yesterday that during his first day on the job, he discussed the cellblock operation in a courtesy visit with Superior Court Chief Judge H. Carl Moultrie I. Golden said he reported that conversation the following day to officials at marshal headquarters.

Dissatisfaction with Golden's performance intensified last week after what one Justice Department source described as an "embarrassing confrontation" at St. Elizabeths Hospital between Golden's office and marshal service headquarters over who should take presidential assailant John W. Hinckley Jr. to federal court for his commitment hearing.

Two carloads of marshals showed up at the hospital shortly after 5 a.m. Aug. 9 and claimed custody of Hinckley, sources said. Golden acknowledged that he asked to see the credentials of the chief inspector from marshal headquarters in Fairfax County, whom he did not know, and asked if he was sworn in to serve in the District. He denied allegations that he grabbed the inspector's credentials from him.

Golden said that he believed that the transportation of Hinckley to court was to be a joint effort involving both his office and headquarters.

Hinckley was eventually transported to the federal court without incident, but that afternoon, after the confrontation was reported to the Justice Department, Golden met with associate attorney general Giuliani.

Two days later, after interviewing witnesses to the incident, sources said Giuliani told Golden that because of "management differences" he would have to retire or resign from his job or be dismissed.

Golden said that he has witnesses and documents that support his version of both the Superior Court discussion and the Hinckley incident.

Sources said Justice Department officials were willing to place Golden in another job in the department to protect his entitlement to retirement benefits, which he is eligible for in about three months, sources said.

When Golden failed to take action after several deadlines were set, the attorney general submitted his dismissal papers to Reagan.