A Senate committee has voted a one-year delay in activating a federal law that will permit the location of foreign government chanceries in parts of the city where they are now prohibited.

The measure, a provision of a new Foreign Missions Act recently signed into law by President Reagan, is a diluted version of controversial legislation that -- in its original form -- would have virtually stripped the city of power to restrict the location of chanceries, as embassy office buildings are known.

As enacted, the bill permits chanceries in some commercial and industrial neighborhoods where they are now barred, such as MacArtur Boulevard. However, city zoning agencies will retain power to decide most of the cases based on evidence and testimony.

On Wednesday, on a motion by Sen. Warren B. Rudman (R-N.H.), the Senate Appropriations Committee voted to tack a rider onto the city's fiscal 1983 budget bill that would delay thee change in the law until Oct. 1, 1983.

A spokesman for Rudman said the provision was sought by "people in the D.C. government and local community groups," both of which had fought the State Department's efforts to strip the city of most of its chancery-zonging power.

An Appropriations Committee report said the provision would give time to resolve "confusion and unanswered questions."

The committee also approved a record $364.1 million federal payment to the city, compared to $336 million endorsed earlier by the House Appropriations Committee. A final figure, and a decision on the chancrey provision if it is approved by the full Senate, will be determined by a joint House-Senate conference.