Democrats who hold statewide elective offices in Maryland will ask voters Tuesday to elect them to new four-year terms.

State officials seeking reelection are Gov. Harry Hughes, Comptroller Louis L. Goldstein and Attorney General Stephen H. Sachs.

Hughes' Republican challenger is County Executive Robert A. Pascal of Anne Arundel. Goldstein, seeking his seventh term, is opposed by Richard L. Andrews, a Baltimore gun dealer. Hoping to bar Sachs' path to a second term is Attorney Robert N. Dugan of Timonium.

One of the key statewide contests is the battle between U.S. Sen. Paul S. Sarbanes, a Democrat, seeking his second term, and Republican challenger County Executive Lawrence J. Hogan of Prince George's.

Members of the state's eight-member congressional delegation, seven of whom are Democrats, also are seeking reelection. The sole Republican in the delegation is 4th District Rep. Marjorie S. Holt of Severna Park.

The only statewide officeholders not running this year are Sen. Charles McC. Mathias (R), whose term runs through 1986, and Lt. Gov. Samuel W. Bogley (D), who was dropped by Hughes early in the year. Bogley sought unsuccessfully to retain his office by teaming up with State Sen. Harry J. McGuirk, who was defeated by Hughes in the September primary.

Hughes' new running mate is State Sen. J. Joseph Curran Jr. of Baltimore. Running with Pascal is Newton I. Steers Jr. of Bethesda, a former congressman and state senator. Candidates for governor and lieutenant governor run as a team.

The entire legislature -- 47 senators and 141 delegates -- will be up for election. Some incumbents must run in new areas because of redistricting. As the result of retirement, defeat or decisions to seek other offices, a number of familiar names will be missing from the ballot, including McGuirk and Curran.

In Montgomery's 8th District, Rep. Michael Barnes, (D) seeking a third term, is being challenged by former county school board member Elizabeth W. Spencer in a contest characterized by the gentleness of the rhetoric. Spencer won the nomination by beating Marian Greenblatt, her former colleague on the school board.

Greenblatt remains in politics, with two years remaining on her term on the nonpartisan school board. Her conservative educational philosophy is at the center of divisive races for four seats on the seven-member board.

In Pringe George's, only three of the nine school board seats are up for election, and only two of those are contested.

With Hogan giving up his post in Upper Marlboro for a try at the U.S. Senate, the Prince George's county executive's office is being sought by Democratic county councilman Parris N. Glendening and Republican Ann Shoch.

The Prince George's County Council will take a new shape as its size is reduced from 11 to 9, with members elected from districts instead of at large.

In Montgomery, Democrats have been trying to heal the wounds of a bitter primary battle to retain all seven seats on the council, on a ticket headed by County Executive Charles P. Gilchrist, the Democratic incumbent. His Republican opponent is Bethesda banker Joseph C. McGrath.