The Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Co. asked permission yesterday to sell basic telephone equipment to residential and one-line business customers in the District and Virginia. Prices would be the same as those now charged in Maryland, where equipment sales to customers began Jan. 13, a company representative said.

The proposal, which is an outgrowth of the government-ordered reorganization of the company, includes three basic types of telephones in both rotary dial and Touch-Tone: the standard desk or wall set, Trimline phones and Princess sets. Prices for equipment sold from inventory would range from $34.95 to $74.95, according to the petition.

Prices for equipment on customer premises would be discounted during the first 90 days of the sale, ranging from $19.95 to $54.95. After the sale, this equipment would be increased by $15 to $20 for each instrument, the company said.

C&P asked the Virginia State Corporation Commission to allow the plan to take effect March 2. In the District, the effective date of the plan would be set by the Public Service Commission. C&P officials pointed out that customers who don't want to buy equipment would be able to continue leasing.