The Senate approved its revision of the 1983-1984 budget, rejecting amendments that would have fully restored cuts in school aid and delayed a $3,000 increase in legislative salaries.

The proposed amendments died a ritual death since rarely, if ever, has a budget been changed on the Senate floor. After today's 39-to-1 vote, the Senate's spending plan goes to the House. The House will send its own version to the Senate Thursday and this year's unusual fiscal tug of war will enter a new phase.

The Senate bill would restore many of the cuts ordered by Gov. Charles S. Robb, particularly in education and in the state's salary accounts. It would also put back $1.2 million for local community health boards, about half of the amount cut by Robb.

The Senate's budget would produce an additional $243,145 for George Mason University in Fairfax; $296,560 for Northern Virginia Community College; $140,000 for services at the Northern Virginia Training Center provided by the Fairfax County school system; and a $2,000 loan to the Town of Occoquan to finance a second recount of its 1980 census. The Prince William County town has been in a financial bind ever since census data showed its population had dropped sharply, cutting its state and federal aid.

The Senate roundly defeated a proposal to postpone for a year a pay raise that would boost legislators' salaries from $8,000 to $11,000 next January.